Table of Contents
Taxi- The process of a plane moving slowly along the ground before beginning to run forward for take-off.
Runway: This is a wide path from which aircraft take off and on which they land.
Tarmac: This is a surface of a road, runway at an airport. E,g The plane was waiting on a tarmac.
Air hostess: A young woman who looks after passengers in an aircraft.
Flight: A journey in a plane.
Air borne: In the air. If a plane is airborne, it is in the air.
Radar: This is the method of showing the direction and the distance of a plane by means of radio waves.
Touch down: A plane touches down when it lands.
Hangar: This is where aircraft are housed
Control tower: This is where air traffic controllers sit and direct plane traffic
Cockpit: A compartment in which the pilot of an aeroplane sits.
Mast: a long pole set upright on a ship to support the sail or flag.
Berth: a place in port where a ship can be moored.
Boatyard: this is a place where boats are built or repaired or fasten by rope.
Harbor: A place of shelter for ship.
Quayside: This is the side or edge of a quay.
Ocean liner- Ship used to carry passengers and some cargo is across the ocean
Cruise ship- This type of ship is used for adventurism
Cabin: This is a private room in a ship
Yacht: A boat or small ship, usually with sails, often with an engine, built and used for racing or cruising.
Row-row ship- This is used to convey cars into the country. Such ship will be widely opened for various cars on the ship to be driven out.
Dredging: This is the clearing or deepening the river or body of water.
Dock: This is a platform built on the shore [wharf].
Coast: This is land along the sea.
Crew: A group of people who works or operates on a ship.
Captain: This is a commander of a ship.
Off shore: In or on the sea, not far from the coast. The opposite of this is ‘on-shore’
Flag: This is the flag a country mounted on a ship with which it sails.
Anchor: This is something, usually a heavy piece of metal with points which dig into the sea-bed, used to hold a boat or a ship.
Coach: A passenger railway train.
Freight: Goods or cargo.
Locomotive: Engine that goes from place to place using its own power, especially used to pull railway trains.
Railway yard: A place where trains are parked or maintained.
Commuter trains: These carry passengers between large cities and the surrounding suburbs.
Freight service: This is a service which involves transportation of goods from one place to another.
Rail tracks. These are tracks on which a train moves.
EVALATION: Form ten sentences using words that are related to aviation industry.
STRUCTURE: NOUN CLAUSE
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of a noun
(i)As a subject of a sentence.
What he said is bitter
That he was insulted pained him a great deal.
(ii)As object of a verb:
The cook gave us what we should eat.
He told us that he would come.
(iii)As complement of subject
Honesty is what we need.
The important thing is that he has arrived
(ii)As complement of a preposition
We call him what he likes.
(iii)As object complement
The prize will go to whoever wins.
INTRODUCTION TO CONSONANT SOUNDS
The 24 consonant sounds
The consonants are sounds realized when the air that comes from the lungs is obstructed.
The 24 consonant sounds
Voiced bilabial Nasal stop /m/
As in many, summer, bomb, damn
Voiceless bilabial plosive/p/
The upper and the lower lips are pressed together.
As in picture, apple, tripper
Voiced bilabial plosive /b/
/b/ – baby, robber, baboon
Voiceless labio-dental fricative /f/
As in firm, rough, physics
Voiced labio-dental fricative/v/
As in vigour, Stephen, of, Volkswagen
Voiceless dental fricative/ θ /
As in “th” – thank, author, path,
Voiced dental fricative /ð/
The sound is made the same way the sound / θ / is produced.
“th” – than, that, gather
Voiced alveolar nasal stop/n/
As in: new, banner, pneumonia , known , gnash
Voiceless alveolar plosive /k/
As in “t”- two, attack, Thomas smashed, missed
Voiced alveolar plosive /d/
As in: Standard, breed, sudden
Voiceless alveolar fricative /s/
As in: Saturday, miss, grass, rice, axe science
Voiced alveolar fricative /z/
As in: zero, dizzy, please, scissors examples
Voiced alveolar lateral /l/
As in lip, hello
Voiced alveolar /r/
As in rain, carrot, write, wrinkle, rhetoric
Voiceless post alveolar fricative /ʃ/
As in sure, schedule, shabby, mission, machine, precious, nation
Voiced post alveolar fricative /Ӡ/
As in: measure, treasure, pleasure, confusion, beige, Jean
Voiceless post alveolar affricative/tʃ/
As in cello, change, question, pasture
Voiced post alveolar affricative /dӠ/
/d З/ is a voiced sound
As in jug, George, ginger, gym, educate
Voiceless palatal Approximant /j/
As in yam, halleluyah, unity, Europe
Voiced velar nasal stop/ᵑ/
As in sing, bank, anchor, include, anxious
Voiceless velar plosive /k/
As in cat, crack, chemical king, queue, account
Voiced velar plosive /g/
As in goat, haggle, ghost
Voiced labio velar /w/
As in wear, where, whistle
Voiceless, Glottal Fricative /h/
As in hope, whole, Llanfair
Write 10 consonants sounds and give two examples for each
Standard Speech Book 10: Diction in English Course page 1-10
A narrative essay is the one that requires you to relate an event or incident as an eye-witness would. It requires imagination
Study the following short passage:
It was pitch-dark outside the bedroom. It must have been that the security light was not switched on before we went to bed. There was some movement outside one of the windows. I listened. As I got up from bed to check at the windows, a flash of light through the window dazzled my eyes. I shouted “thief” and the next thing I heard was a gun shot.
The writer is here trying to paint a picture in words. It is only by your own imagination that this picture can be made more beautiful.
Write a narrative essay that ends with “It pays to be hardworking”
GENERAL EVALUATION/ REVISION QUESTIONS
From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
- was a. girls .b. raise c. rice d. sing
- Insure a. pleasure b. cheap c. vision d. ocean
- Mixed a .pumped b. thronged c. climbed d. sponged
4 Gear a. gesture b .near c. fair d. neighbour
- Drink a. strength b. dent c. snag d. enough
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