Origin of U.N.O
The United Nation Organization came into being on October 24, 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, which collapsed as a result of the Second World War.
The formation of the U.N.O. was led by the victorious powers, which were United Kingdom, America, Russia and China. The United Nation has its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Admission into the U.N.O is open to all peace loving countries.
The Principles of U.N.O
- Respect for the sovereign equality of all nations.
- Provision of military assistance to troubled states when it is called to do so.
- Promotion of democratic principles.
- Maintenance of international peace and security.
- The use of force in settling dispute should be discouraged.
- Peaceful settlement of disputes.
- Unity and cooperation among member nations.
Aims and Objectives of the U.N.O
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To settle disputes through peaceful means.
- To respect the sovereignty of member states.
- To promote and encourage respect for human rights.
- To develop friendly relations among states.
- To accelerate the independence of trust territories.
ORGANS OF THE U.N.O
The following are the organs of U.N.O
- The General Assembly.
- The Security Council.
- The Secretariat.
- The trusteeship Council.
- The international Court of Justice.
- The Economic and Social Council.
The General Assembly
The General Assembly is the central organ of the U.N.O. Its membership includes all member countries of the U.N.O. Each state is entitled to five representatives or delegation. The Assembly meets once in a year on regular session.
The General Assembly has the power to deliberate on any matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the organization’s interest. On important matters, decisions are made by two –third of the members present to vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are reached by a simple majority. The chairmanship of the Assembly is held for one year and rotated among member-states.
FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
- Deliberative function: It provides a forum for the discussion of world peace and security and to make recommendation for the resolution of conflicts.
- Approval of annual budget: It is the function of the General Assembly to discuss and approve the annual budget of the organization.
- Voting: The General Assembly has the power to vote on issues of international importance.
- Admission: It is the duty of the General Assembly to admit new members into the organization.
- Education: The body elects non-permanent members into the Security Council and judges of international courts of justice.
- Settlement of dispute: It settles disputes by peaceful means and eradicates the causes of war and threat of wars.
- Annual report: The General Assembly considers annual reports by the secretary-general e.g the state of the World address.
- It guides jealously the realization of fundamental human rights and freedom for all people.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council has fifteen members. The membership was enlarged from eleven to fifteen in 1965. Out of the fifteen members, five, namely; The United States of America, Russia, China, France and Britain are permanent members. They also have wielded veto power. There are ten non-permanent members of the Security Council.
They are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. The Security Council is the most powerful organ of the U.N.O and is charged with the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
- Peace and Security: The major function of the Security Council is to maintain peace and security in the World.
- It makes recommendation to the General Assembly for the appointment of Secretary-General.
- It makes annual and special report to the General- Assembly.
- It recommends the admission of new member state.
- It investigates any matter that can lead to war and effect peaceful resolutions.
- It recommends the suspension and expulsion of erring member –states to the General Assembly for consideration.
- A veto by any of the permanent member nullifies a decision.
- The organ elects the judges of the World court in collaboration with the General Assembly.
This is the administrative unit of the U.N.O. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General. He is responsible for the supervision and co-ordination of the activities of all the organs. The Secretary General is elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year term. He can be re-elected. The past Secretary General of U.N.O include the following ; Mr. Trigve Lie (Norway), Mr. Dag Hammars-Kjold of Sweden (1953-61), U. Thant of Burma (1961-72). Others are Kurt Waldheim of Australia (1972-82), Perez de Cueller of Peru (1982-92), Boutros Boutros Ghali of Egypt (1993-98), Dr. Koffi Annan of Ghana (1998-2006) and the incumbent Secretary General is Mr. Ban Ki Moon of Korea.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECRETARIAT
- The secretariat handles all U.N.O. correspondence.
- It gives annual report of U.N.O to General Assembly.
- The secretariat performs administrative functions as the administrative headquarters of the organization.
- It makes available all the materials needed for all meetings of the organization.
- It serves as the information center of the organization.
- It carries out the recruitment of U.N. staff.
THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
The council comprises member states who administer trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council and other members determined and elected by the General Assembly. It oversees the administration of non-self governing territories under member countries. Its relevance has diminished with the independence of virtually all countries.
FUNCTIONS OF THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
- It is responsible for the supervision of territiories placed under the international trusteeship system.
- The council help tp promote the economic, social, political and educational development of these people.
- The council receives and considers progress reports submitted by member countries.
- It encourages trust countries towards their self government.
- The council pays periodic official visits to the trust territories to assess the progress going on there.
- The council accepts and considers petitions from the trusteeship areas.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
This is the judicial organ of the U.N.O. It is also known as the World court. It has its headquarters in Hague, Netherland and it has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the security for a period of nine years. Members of the court can be re-elected at the expiration of their term of office and their appointment is on full time basis.
FUNCTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
- This organ is the main judicial organ of the U.N.O.
- The court settles disputes among member-countries of U.N.O brought before it.
- It gives legal advice to the U.N.O and the specialized agencies.
- The court interprets international conventions and agreements.
- The court makes the decisions of the court binding on member-states in disputes.
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
The council is made up of 27 members of which are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years with retiring members eligible for immediate re-election. This council is mainly responsible for all economic and social activities of the U.N.O. Settlements of issues or matters are reached by simple majority vote.
FUNCTIONS OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
- The council is responsible for the economic and social activities of the U.N.O.
- It prepares reports on the activities of all U.N.O agencies.
- It organizes international conferences to examine the economic and social development problems of the World.
- It makes recommendation for the promotion of fundamental human rights.
- It gives information and assistance to the Security Council.
- It involves in coordinating the activities of specialized agencies e.g Food and Agricultural Organization.
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