TEXTILE FIBRES

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TEXTILE FIBRES

  The following sub-topics will be covered under this topic:

  1. Classification of Textile Fibres
  2. Properties of Textile Fibres

Fibres

Fibres are classified into two main groups:

–  Natural

–  Man-made

–  Wool fibre

Natural Fibres

  1. Animal
  2. Plant
  3. Mineral

Animal Fibres

  1. Wool
  2. Silk

Plant Fibres

  1. Cotton
  2. Linen

Man-made Fibres

These are fibres that are not made purely from natural raw materials.

They are classified into two groups:

  1. Regenerated
  2. Synthetic

Regenerated Fibres

They are made from natural fibres treated with chemical substances.

They include:

  1. Viscose Rayon
  2. Acetate Rayon

Viscose Rayon

Viscose rayon is made from cotton linters and chemicals.

–  Spinneret

–  Acetate Rayon

–  Acetate rayon is made from wood pulp and chemicals.

Synthetic Fibres

Synthetic fibres are made from chemicals.

These chemicals are derived from coal, oil or petroleum products.

The fibres are made through a process known as polymerisation where polymers are made by the combination of small molecules.

They include:

  1. Polyamide
  2. Polyester
  3. Polyacrylics

Polyamide

They are made from benzene (from coal), oxygen and nitrogen (from air) and hydrogen (from water).

Polyamide under the microscope

Polyester

Polyester fibres are derived from petroleum.

Polyacrylics

This is produced from acrylonitrile, a liquid produced from petroleum or natural gas.

Elastomerics

They are elastic and rubber like substances made from polyunethane.

–  Properties of Textile Fibres

–  Properties of Cotton Cotton is produced from the cotton plant.

It is one of the most popular natural fibres used to make personal and household articles.

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