A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. For example, you could say, “Lisa is a nice girl.” Then you could replace the noun “Lisa” with the word “She” and get the following sentence: “She is a nice girl.” “She” is a pronoun.
Examples: I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.
(1) He doesn’t want go with them.
(2) Would they help us?
(3) His house is bigger than ours.
(4) Who is she?
The word “pronoun” comes from “pro” (in the meaning of “substitute”) + “noun.”
Types of Pronouns
(A) Personal Pronouns:
Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them.
(2) Demonstrative Pronouns:
“Demonstrative” means “showing, making something clear.” Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those.
Use “this” and “these” to talk about things that are near in space or in time.
Use “that” and “those” to talk about things that are farther away in space or time.
(1) This cannot go on.
(2) That was beautiful!
(3) He wanted those, but decided to compromise on these.
“Interrogative” means “used in questions.” Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc.
Use “who” and “whom” to talk about people.
Use “which” and “what” to talk about animals and things.
(1) Who is your father?
(2) Whom did you speak to?
(3) Which bag did you buy?
(4) What are my choices?
(C) Possessive Pronouns:
“Possessive” means “showing ownership.” Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
(1) I’ve lost my wallet.
(2) He married his girlfriend.
(3) This place is theirs.
(4) Is that cat yours?
(5) My car is slow. Hers is much faster.
(D) Relative Pronouns:
“Relative” means “connected with something.” Relative pronouns are pronouns that link different parts of a sentence. The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.
(1) The girl who called yesterday came to see you.
(2) The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
(3) She lives in Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine.
(4) I really liked the book that you gave me.
(E) Reflexive Pronouns:
“Reflexive” means “going back to itself.” Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. Reflexive pronouns end in “-self” (singular) or “-selves” (plural). The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.
(1) He cut himself while shaving.
(2) I sent myself to bed.
(3) He could hurt himself!
(4)We must help ourselves.
(5) She trusts herself.
(F) Intensive Pronouns:
“Intensive” means “giving force or emphasis.” An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used for emphasis. In other words, intensive pronouns emphasize the subject of the sentence. They are written exactly the same way as the reflexive pronouns, but their function is different.
(1) I myself baked the cake.
(2) The queen herself recommended this restaurant.
(3) Have you yourself been there?
(4) The project itself wasn’t difficult.
(5) We will do it ourselves.
(G) Reciprocal Pronouns:
Reciprocal means that two people or groups do the same thing to each other. They treat each other in the same way. For example, Joe loves Kate, and Kate loves Joe. So we can say,
“Kate and Joe love each other.”
Another example: Mike helps Lucy, and Lucy helps Mike. So we can say, “Mike and Lucy help each other.”
There are two reciprocal pronouns in English:
Each other and one another.
The cat and the dog like each other .
The two politicians hate each other .
We must stop fighting one another.
They gave each other Christmas presents.
They can’t hear one another.
(H) Indefinite Pronouns:
“Indefinite” means “not exact, not limited.” Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to any specific person or thing.
Anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.
Many have died during the war.
Can anyone call her?
Everybody wants to see you.
Something can be done to help.
ESSAY WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER
COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS
ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVAL PHRASE