Inadequate Land / Land Tenure System
There is problem of enough agricultural land production as a result of situation arising from the system of land. Land is communally owned in Nigeria and no person can lay sole right over the land. People who have capital find it difficult to obtain land for investment.
SOLUTION (i) Reviewing and enforcing the land use act of 1978.
(ii) Abandoned land should be put to use
Inadequate Provision of Basic/Social Amenities
Inadequate provision of amenities like electricity, pipe borne water, health care, school, etc. in rural area are part of the problem hindering agricultural development in Nigeria.
SOLUTION (i) The government should provide basic social amenities such as electricity medical centres, schools e. t. c. in rural areas.
(ii) People should join hands together to engage in community development.
Poor Financial Status of The Farmers
Farmers find it difficult to invest considerable capital in their farming activities because of their poor financial status. They cannot acquire modern farm input like machinery, improved seed, fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides etc.
SOLUTION (i) Farmers should form co-operative societies to pool their resources together to benefit members and for easy procurement of loan from bank.
(ii) Government should subsidize the price of agricultural inputs.
(iii) Commercial and agricultural banks should make loan available to farmers at low interest rate.
(iv) Collateral security should be in form of guarantee.
Loan and Credit with High Interest Rate
The interest rate that is normally charged on the principal sums by banks or other financial institutions are high. This discourages farmer from borrowing.
SOLUTION: As in poor financial status of farmers.
Give two possible solutions each to the problems of
- inadequate land and
- poor financial status of the farmers
Illiteracy of the Farmers
Most of the farmers are not educatedand cannot understand modern farming approach because basic education is needed.
(a) Mass literacy programme should be organized by the government to educate farmers.
(b) Demonstration farms should be established in strategic locations to train farmers.
Lack of efficient transport system also adversely affects agricultural production and development. The roads are generally poor and badly maintained. This makes it difficult for farmers to transport their products from villages to cities and forces them to sell at local markets at relatively low prices.
SOLUTION: (a) Government should construct roads leading to food producing areas.
(b) Construction of railways and water ways to link rural and riverine areas to urban centres.
(c) Rehabilitation of existing damaged road.
(d) Regular supply of fuel and spare parts at affordable price to reduce transportation cost.
Inadequate Storage and Processing Facilities
The farmers lack adequate storage facilities to preserve or convert excess farm produce into another form. This result in wastage of a reasonable proportion of farm produce annually or the farmers are forced to dispose them off when prices are low there by getting little returns.
SOLUTION: (a) Government should provide modern storage facilities such as silos, cribs, cold rooms to farmers at affordable price.
(b) Government should such as millers and threshers should be made available to farmers at subsidized rate.
(c) Farmers should be educated on how to make use of modern processing and storage facilities.
(d) Private individuals and cooperate bodies should invest in processing of agricultural produce.
Suggest two possible ways each to the problems of i) illiteracy of farmers ii) transportation in agricultural development
Poor Marketing System
The system through which agricultural products are been sold does not allow the farmer to get full benefit or reward for their labour, this discourages farmers from producing in large quantity.
SOLUTION; (i) Government should stabilize prices of agricultural produce through the marketing board.
Problems of Pests and Diseases
Pests, which are organisms capable of damaging farm produce and pathogens which are disease causing organisms render a lot of havoc to agricultural produce thereby reducing the quantity and quality. The cost of controlling these pests and diseases increases the cost of production. Pests and diseases reduce the farmers’ income.
SOLUTION: (i) Pesticides and other agro-chemicals should be made available to farmers at subsidized rate.
(ii) Development of disease resistance varieties by the research institutes.
Poor Agricultural Inputs
Fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, machineries are not within the reach of farmers and some are expensive to purchase and maintain.This leads to reduction in farm yield.
SOLUTION: (a) Government should subsidize the price of agricultural inputs
(b) Improved farm inputs should be made available to farmers at the right time.
This generally discourages serious farming activities. Low rainfall leads to poor harvest of crops and low sunlight intensity reduces the rate of photosynthesis which eventually leads to low yield.
SOLUTION: (a) Provision of irrigation facilities.
(b) Provision of drainage facilities
(c) Insurance policies.
- Suggest two possible solutions each to the problems of i) unfavourable climate ii) poor agricultural input
Use of Crude Tools
Farmers lack access to modern implement or machinery. This affects the rate of production in their farms.
SOLUTION: (a) Farmers should form co-operative societies to purchase modern machines and use them in turn.
(b) Government should encourage local fabrication of suitable intermediate machinery.
(c) Government should provide credit facilities to farmers to enable them to purchase modern machineries.
Inadequate Number of Extension Workers
There are few agricultural extension agents who own the responsibility of teaching the farmers the improved method of farming.
SOLUTION: (i) There should be more training and employment of extension workers.
(ii) By providing more incentives to agricultural extension workers.
Inconsistent Government Policies on Agriculture
Government policies fail to recognize the peasant farmers that produce food for the country. Most of the farmers do not have access to farm input provided through such policies.
SOLUTION: (i) Government should formulate dynamic agricultural policies and implement them.
(ii) The policies should recognize genuine farmers (rural farmers)
Natural Hazard/Environmental Degradation
Some of the agricultural land has been degraded due to the effect of flooding, soil erosion, water logging etc.
SOLUTION: (a) Afforrestation
(b) Planting of cover crops
(c) Terracing and strip cropping should be practiced
(d) Insurance policies
- Suggest two possible solutions to the problems of (i) crude tools (ii) natural hazards in agricultural development in Nigeria.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- State five problems of agricultural development in Nigeria and suggest two possible solutions to each.
- Who are extension agents?
- Discuss the roles of agric extension in the development of agriculture in Nigeria.
- Outline four possible solutions to the problem of natural hazard in agricultural development.
- List five agricultural inputs
- Artificial supply of water to farmland is known as… A. irrigation B. drainage C. conservation D. assimilation
- The following are farm machineries except A. tractor B. bulldozer C. ridger D. hoe
- The following activities can make soil fertility to be degraded except A. erosion B.flooding C. leaching D. crop rotation
- The chemical used to destroy weeds on farms is called A. herbicide B.pesticide C weedicide D. insecticide
- Farmers can collect credit facilities from any of the following except A.commercial bank B.agricultural bank C.thrift and saving society D. mortgage
- List out five problems of agricultural development in Nigeria.
- Suggest two possible solutions to each of the problems listed above