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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION (NUTRITION)

Agricultural Science

Introduction

Animals are fed for the purpose of production and body maintenance. The edible material given to animals is called food. It is digested, absorbed and utilized in the body. Nutrients are organic and inorganic substances contained in the food materials

Components of Food material

 

Water

Sources

Functions

Factors Determining the Requirements of Water by Livestock

 

Protein

Sources:

Functions:

 

Digestion of Proteins

In non-ruminants, protein digestion takes placed in the stomach.

In ruminants, protein digestion initially takes place in the rumen.

Carbohydrates

Sources:

Functions:

Digestion of Carbohydrates

In non-ruminants:

– Carbohydrate feeds are broken down by chewing into small particles.

– Then enzymatic action further breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose which are then assimilated into the bloodstream.

In ruminants:

Mechanical breakdown of carbohydrate feeds is followed by microbial activities which break down cellulose into volatile fatty acids.

These are absorbed through the rumen walls.

Some carbohydrates are broken down by enzymatic action in the “true stomach” or abomasum.

 

Fats and Oils

Sources:

Functions:

Digestion of lipids in Ruminants

 

Vitamins

Sources:

Ffish liver oil.

Functions:

Examples:

 

Minerals

Sources:

Functions:

Examples:

 

Calcium and phosphorus

– Needed for teeth and bone formation.

– Lack of these minerals leads to rickets, osteomalacia.

–  Lack of iron leads to anaemia.

 

See also:

AGRICULTURE IN STOCK EXCHANGE

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL FEEDS

LIVESTOCK HEALTH (PARASITES)

NURSERY PRACTICES

SEED RATE

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