Farm machinery includes various types of machines and implements used in the farm. These include tractor, plough, harrows, cultivators, ridgers, planter, harvesters, shellers, dryer, sprayer, and incubators
- TRACTOR: It is a powerful and expensive multipurpose motor vehicle used for lifting or pulling farm implements.
IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE TRACTOR
- The power takes off shaft (P.T.O) shaft used in drawing farm implements e.g. plough, harrow etc.
- The hydraulic control system which lifts mounted implements under the control.
- Internal combustion engine which uses diesel or petrol without spark plug.
- It has four wheels rubber tyres.
FUNCTIONS OF TRACTORS
- For transportation of farm input and outputs when the trailer is attached.
- It operates water pumps for irrigation or other farm purposes.
- Lifting of couples implement by the hydraulic system.
- Pulling of farm implement attached.
- Tilling the soil with appropriate implement attached.
- Planting seeds when coupled with planter.
- Spraying seedlings when coupled with sprayer.
- Provision of electric power.
- Harvesting crops when coupled with harvesters.
- Can be used for mowing lawn with mowers.
DAILY MAINTENANCE OF TRACTORS
- Remove trash and mud after every operation.
- Check water level and top if necessary.
- Check tyre pressure daily before operation.
- Check electrolyte of battery every day and top when necessary.
- Adhere strictly to manual or manufacturer’s instruction.
- What is farm machinery?
- List five functions of tractors.
PERIODIC MAINTENANCE OF TRACTOR
- Tractor should be serviced at regular intervals.
- Worn out tyres should be replaced.
- Nuts, screws or shield should be checked and tightened regularly.
- Replace worn out parts.
- Adhere strictly to manuals.
- Routine and regular changing of the engine oil.
- Air filter should be cleared when necessary.
- Oil filter should be change during each service.
- BULLDOZERS: They are powerful tractors and expensive machines with a broad steel blade or sheet at the front. It has tract type metal chains used for its movement , it has an internal combustion engine which uses petrol or diesel.
USES/FUNCTIONS OF BULLDOZER
- Bulldozer is used for clearing bushed.
- Used for felling trees and stumps.
- Used for leveling the ground.
- Used for constructing road in the rural areas.
- It is used for moving and collection of the earth.
DISADVANTAGES OF USING BULLDOZER FOR LAND PREPARATION
- It destroys the structure of the soil.
- It leads to reduction of soil fertility.
- It leads to reduction in soil fertility.
- It causes compaction of the soil.
- It causes air pollution.
- It is costly.
- It can cause soil erosion and water logging.
- TREE PULLERS: They are machines such as tractors or bulldozers. They are usually used to remove trees instead of bulldozers.
- List three periodic maintenance of a tractor.
- List five disadvantages of using bulldozers in bush clearing.
ADVANTAGES OF USING TREE PULLERS OVER BULLDOZERS
- Tree puller does not compress the soil.
- It does not remove the fertile top soil.
- Land is less prone to erosion.
- The organic matter content of the soil is retained.
- It leads to non-destruction of soil structure.
- It uproot the tree with mineral disturbance of the soil.
- SHELLERS: These are machines operated electrically, mechanically or manually. Shellers are used to separate the seeds from the husk or cob. They are used for removing the hard outer covering of nuts and grains.
- DRYERS: These are farm machines used to reduce moisture content of crop and animal products.
- INCUBATORS: These are machines which are used for hatching fertilized eggs artificially.
- MILKING MACHINE: This machine is used for milking or extracting fresh milk mechanically from the udder of cattle and other milk producing animals like sheep and goat.
- List three advantages of using tree pullers over bulldozers.
- State the functions of shellers, dryer and incubators.
TRACTOR COUPLED IMPLEMENTS
These are implements which are coupled or attached to a tractor in order to enable if perform its work. They are also called intermediate farm machinery. Examples are ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, cultivators harvester, sprayer, mowers, baler, fertilizer applicator and harvesters.
- THE PLOUGH
This is a primary tillage implement which is attached to a tractor. It is the first implement required in land preparation.
TYPES OF PLOUGH
- Disc plough
- Mould broad plough
Draw and list all the parts of both disc plough and mould board plough, state the functions of all the parts in your note.
These are secondary tillage implements which re used to break up the clods of soil formed after ploughing.
- SPRING TINE CULTIVATOR
It is a type of harrow and a secondary tillage implement used for land preparation.
FUNCTIONS OF SPRING TINE CULTIVATOR
- It breaks down the soil clod or lump after ploughing.
- It aids the removal of weeds from the soil surface.
- It helps in dragging roots and stone out of the soil.
- It helps to stir soil without turning it over.
It is a secondary tillage implement used for land preparation, it is used after harrow and before planter. The two types are disc ridgers and mould board ridgers.
These are machines or implements designed primarily to plant seeds of crops such as cowpea, cotton and cereals.
TYPES OF PLANTERS
- Broadcast crop planter
- Row crop planter
- Precesion planter
- Grain drill planter
These are machines or implement designed primarily to facilitate the process of harvesting various crops.
TYPES OF HARVESTERS
- Forage harvesters
- Combine harvesters
These are types of equipment designed to spray certain chemicals in various farm operations.
TYPES OF SPRAYERS
- Knapsack (Pneumatic Sprayer)
- Tractor mounted sprayer
- Helicopter-mounted sprayer
FUNCTIONS OF SPRAYERS
- It can be used to control the growth of weeds.
- It can be used to control the effects of pest.
- It can be used to spray disinfectant.
- It can be used for light irrigation.
- It can be used to spray liquid fertilizer.
Draw the knapsack sprayer and state the functions of the label parts.
- State five precautions to take while using sprayers
- List five maintenance of sprayings
- List three types of planters
- State three functions of tractors
- List three types of harvesters
- The most useful farm machinery among this is _____ (a) tractor (b) bulldozer (c) tree puller (d) mower
- The part of tractor which is used for lifting implement is _____ (a) PTO shaft
(b) hydraulic system (c) top shaft (d) combustion engine
- The machines used for removing seeds from the husk is called ____ (a) shellers
(b) mowers (c) tractor (d) bulldozer
- The machines which are used for hatching eggs is ______ (a) incubator (b) mower
(c) milking machine (d) candle
- Which of these is not a tractor coupled implement? (a) plough (b) harrow (c) ridger (d) emasculator
- (a) List five daily maintenance of tractor.
(b) List five periodic maintenance of tractor.
- (a) What is farm machinery?
(b) List five uses of tractor.
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