This is based on nutrient composition:
Are feeds of low available nutrients per unit weight and high fibre content
- Dry roughages,
- Succulent roughages,
- Residues from agricultural by products and conserved materials.
- Low level of available nutrients.
- Have high level of calcium especially legumes.
- Good source of vitamin A.
- Have high fibre content.
Are feeds of high available nutrients per unit weight.
- Maize germ and bran,
- malt extract,
- milk products,
- oil seed cakes,
- meat meal,
- Low fibre content.
- Feed content is consistently high.
- High digestibility of the feed.
- High in nutrient content.
- These are substances added to the feed to increase;
- or hormones to make animals produce more.
There are two types:
- Nutritive additives, such as mineral licks (maclick).
- Non-nutritives additives, such as:
– medicants (coccidiostats),
– Stilboestrol (used in beef animals)
– Oxytocin (to increase milk let down).
- Stimulate growth and production.
- Improve feed efficiency.
- Prevent disease causing organisms.
- These are the feeds prepared and mixed by use of machines.
- These feeds can be round, pelleted, pencils, cubes or mash.
Poultry feeds can be categorized as:
- Chick mash having 20% D.C.P. given to chicks.
- Growers mash having 16% D.C.P. given to growers.
- Layers mash having 12-15% D.C.P. given to layers.
Meaning of terms used to express feed values
Nutritive ratio (NR):
– ls the proportion of protein to carbohydrates and fats.
– In young animals 13:6
– In old animals 1:8.
Crude protein (C.P): ls the total amount of protein contained in a feed.
Digestible Crude Protein (D.C.P): Is the portion of crude protein which an animal is capable of digesting.
Crude Fibre (C.F.):
– ls the total amount of fibre contained in a feed.
– It is mainly lignin and cellulose.
Digestible Fibre (D.F.): ls the portion of the total ﬁbre contained in a teed which an animal is capable of digesting.
Dry Matter (D.M.): ls the material left in a feed after water has been removed.
Starch equivalent (S.E.): ls the amount of pure starch which has the same energy as 100kg of that feed.
Total Digestible Nutrients (T.D.N.): ls the sum of all the digestible organic nutrients such as fats, proteins, carbohydrates and ﬁbre.