WOODWORK HAND TOOLS – BORING TOOLS, CUTTING TOOLS

BORING TOOLS

Boring tools are the tools used for making holes on wood. The major tzpes are

  1. The brace
  2. The bits
  3. Gimlet
  4. Bradawl

 

  1. THE BRACE: This is a tool used for holding and turning the drill bits or twist drill when drilling hole. There are two types of brace and they are plain brace and ratchet brace.

 

Parts of brace are the head, crank, chuck and ratchet. The head: this is made of hard wood and shaped to fit the hand of the user. It is screwed to a steel sleeve it fits over the the crank rod and runs on the hardened steel balls.

 

The crank: This is a rectangular bent metal rod, it fits into hardwood plastic handle. It moves in circular way called the sweep of the brace. The chuck:  the end of the crank is enlarged, threade and slotted to receive the socket and the jas respectively.

 

The ratchet: This is a mechanical device fitted to the brace so that holes can be braced in confined places such as close corners and enable the use of Half the sweep of the brace. A ratcet brace allows the bit to be rotated in one direction only.

 

  1. BITS: A bit is a tool used in wood. Bits generally have a threaded centre point for drawing.

 

TYPES OF DRILL BITS

  1. Twist drill
  2. Twist bits or auger
  3. Countersink bits
  4. BRADAWL: This is used to make small holes in wood before using screws or nails. It can also be used to mark position of a hole before drilling.
  5. GIMLET: This is used chiefly to make holes in wood before inserting small screws and nail.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What are boring tools?
  2. Mention three types of boring tools and state their uses.

 

CUTTING TOOLS

A saw is a tool for sawing or cutting wood into two or more parts. The teeth of saws are set alternately left and right to allow clearance.

 

TYPES OF SAW

We have various types saw based on their on specific operational usefulness.

These are:

  1. RIP SAW
  2. CROS-CUT SAW
  3. PANEL SAW
  4. BACK SAW
  5. TENON SAW
  6. DOVETAIL SAW
  7. COPING SAW
  8. FRET SAW

 

RIP SAW

The is used for sawing along the grain of wood .It has 4-5 points per 25mm and it is 610-710mm long

 

CROSS-CUT SAW

This is used for cutting wood across the grain .It is similar to the rip saw in appearance but it is only 460mm-10mm long. It has 6-9point per 25mm.

 

CROSS-CUT SAW

This is used for cutting wood across the grain .It is similar to the rip saw in appearance but it is only 460mm-10mm long. It has 6-9point per 25mm.

 

PANEL SAW

This is a saw that is capable of doing the work of both the rip saw and the cross-cut saw. It is

an all-purpose saw>It is 460-550mm.

 

BACK SAW

This saw is called backsaw because it has a steel or brass beck.

These includes

  1. Tenon saw
  2. Dovetail saw

 

TENON SAW

The tenon saw is used for cutting tenon, joints and other small jobs on the bench. It has a folded steel or brass back pressed to the blade. This gives it stiffness and weight when cutting. The saw 12 –14 points per 25mm and a length 200-350mm

 

DOVETAIL SAW

The saw is used for dovetailing and other small jobs on the bench. It is a smaller version of the tenon saw, but has an open handle. The length is 200- 260 mm. It has 20 points per 250mm.

 

COPING SAW

This is used for cutting accurate curves in thin wood and plywood. The blade can be adjusted to cut in any direction. The blade is about 150 mm long and has about 14 points per 25mm.

 

FRET SAW

It is used for complex shapes and curves in plywood and veneers. The blade of this saw is finer than the coping saw blade .It has a high frame, which allows it to be used over a wide area.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is a saw?
  2. State 7 types of saws
  3. Describe the following saw and the uses (a) fret saw (b) panel saw

 

PLANES

We have:

  1. JACK PLANE
  2. SMOOTHING PLANE
  3. SPOKESHAVE
  4. THE FORE PLANE
  5. THE TRYING PLANE

 

JACK PLANE

The jackplane is so called because it is a general-purpose plane. It is used generally to plane rough surface of timber and to prepare timber to size. The length of the plane is 250mm  380mm.

See also  METAL WORK - HAND TOOL

 

SMOOTHING PLANE

It is used after the jackplane for final cleaning up of the surfaces of wood. It is 140 250mm long.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention three types of plane.
  2. State the functions of the planes mentioned above.

 

THE CHISEL

A chisel is a chipping tool made from high carbon steel. It is used for shaping wood where finishing by other means such as filling can be carried out.

 

TYPES OF CHISEL

  1. The flat chisel: this is used for general purpose in the workshop such as leveling surfaces and removing rough surfaces.
  2. The cross cut chisel: this is used for making narrow groves, key ways and slots in a shaft or in a hole.
  3. The round nose chisel: this is used for making oil grooves in shaft or in a hole.
  4. Thediamond nose chisel: this is used for cutting inside corners and “Vee” grooves.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Define chisel as a cutting tool.
  2. Mention four types of chisel and state their uses.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. State the uses of the following wood work cutting tools:
  • Dovetail saw
  • Tenon saw
  • Spokeshave
  1. What are boring tools?
  2. Mention four (4) examples of boring tools and state their uses.
  3. Mention four (4) types of chisel and state their uses.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The types of saw that can perform both the work a rip and cross-cut saw is in ____ (a) Tenon saw (b) Dovetail saw (c) Panel saw (d) Back saw
  1. When sharpening, oil is added to the sharpening stone to avoid ____ (a) burning of the stone (b) cutting of the stone  (c) clogging of the work (d) clogging of the stone
  2. The type of saw used for complete shape curves in plywood and veneer is ____ (a) Tenon saw (b) Fret saw (c) Dovetail saw (d) back saw
  1. 1000m: 1m is _____ scale drawing. (a) Full size (b) enlarge (c) reduced (d) proportioned.
  1. ____ Provides accurate representation of objects (a) freehand sketching (b) ordinary drawing (c) scale drawing (d) art work

 

THEORY

  1. State five (5) types of saw you know.
  2. Mention three (3) examples of boring tools.

 

See also

REVISION

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

BUILDING MATERIALS

TYPES OF BUILDINGS & BUILDING MATERIALS

WORKBENCH FITTINGS & APPLIANCES

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