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WATER AND HYDROGEN

Chemistry

Chemistry

WATER AND HYDROGEN

Hydrogen is the simplest element. It is the first element in the periodic table, and it is placed in Group I of the periodic table.

 

Hydrogen

Occurrence

Hydrogen is the lightest element and the most abundant element in the universe.

 

Preparation of Hydrogen by the Action of Metals

The alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium react violently with water at the ordinary temperature, yielding hydrogen.

2 Li + 2 H2O H2 + 2 LiOH

Calcium reacts with water more slowly unless the water is hot, when the action is more vigorous.

Ca + 2 H2O H2 + Ca(OH)2

 

Preparation of Hydrogen from Action of Acids

Hydrogen is prepared in the laboratory by the action of acids on metals. Dilute sulphuric acid containing 1 volume of concentrated acid to 5 volumes of water, or dilute hydrochloric acid containing 1 volume of concentrated acid to 4 volumes of water, is added to granulated zinc.

Zinc sulphate or zinc chloride is formed in solution and the hydrogen that is evolved is collected over water in a trough. Since hydrogen is very much lighter than air it may also be collected by upward displacement.

 

Warning!

Before collecting hydrogen great care must be taken to ensure that all the air has been displaced from the apparatus since a mixture of hydrogen with air is highly explosive.

 

Properties

Hydrogen is;

 

 

Hydrogen summary

Physical Properties

 

See also

SIMPLE MACHINE

AIR AND COMBUSTION

AN ALKALI

BASES AND INDICATORS

EVAPORATION AND BOILING

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