TYPES OF NURSERIES

TYPES OF NURSERIES

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TYPES OF NURSERIES 

Categories of nurseries:

Vegetable Nursery:

  • They are used for raising the seedlings of vegetable crops.
  • Tomatoes, cabbages, kale, onions, brinials and peppers.

Vegetable Propagation Nurseries:

  • They are used for inducing root production in cuttings before they are transplanted,
  • The cuttings can be planted directly in the soil and hence called bare root nurseries.
  • Or planted into containers such as pots, polythene bags and others, hence called containerized nurseries.

Tree Nurseries:

  • These are used for raising tree seedlings.
  • The seedlings can be raised in bare root nurseries or in containerized nurseries.

Nursery Management Practices:

These are the practices carried out in the nursery while the planting materials are growing.

They include:

  • Mulching; —light mulch should be applied on the nursery bed. lt be should be removed on the 4 day
  • Weed control.
  • Pricking out.
  • Pests and disease control.
  • Hardening off

Preparation of vegetative materials for planting:

Cuttings -These are plant parts such as stems, leaves and roots induced to produce roots and used as planting materials.

Grafting 

  • It is the practice of uniting two separate woody stems.
  • The part bearing the roots are referred to as root stock while the part which is grafted onto the root stock is known as scion.
  • The scion has buds which develop into the future plant.
  • The ability of the root stock and the scion to form a successful union is termed as compatibility.

Methods of Grafting

Whip or tongue grafting:

  • In this case the diameter of the rootstock and the scion are the same.
  • It is carried out when the diameter of the scion and the rootstock is ‘pencil’ thick.

Side grafting:

In this case the diameter of the rootstock is bigger than that of the scion.

Other types of grafting include:

  • Approach rafting,
  • Notch grafiing
  • Bark grafting.

Budding:

  • It is the practice of uniting a vegetative bud to a seedling of another plant.
  • The scion has only one bud and some bark with or without wood.
  • The bud is inserted in a slit made on the bark of the stock.
  • It is held tightly on the stock by tying with a budding tape until it produces a shoot.

Methods of Budding:

  • T-budding Top
  • budding Patch

Importance of Budding and Grafting:

  • Plants with desirable root characteristics but with undesirable products may be used to produce desirable products for example lemon-orange graft.
  • They facilitate the changing of the top of the tree from being undesirable to desirable
  • They make it possible to grow more than one type of fruit or flower on the same plant.
  • They help to propagate clones that cannot be propagated in any other way.
  • They help to shorten the maturity period.

Layering

  • It is the process by which a part of a plant is induced to produce roots while still attached to the mother plant.
  • Once the roots have been produced, the stem is then cut off and planted.

Types of layering;

  • Marcotting or aerial layering.
  • Tip layering.
  • Trench layering.
  • Compound or serpentine.

Tissue Culture for Crop Propagation

  • Tissue culture is a biotechnology used in cloning vegetative propagated plants.
  • It is based on the ability of plant tissue (or cells) to regenerate other parts of the plant.
  • The tissues are derived from shoot tips where cells are undergoing rapid cell division and are not differentiated.
  • The cells are then provided with the right conditions which enable them to multiply and develop roots.

The Right Conditions for tissue culture:

  • Culture medium.
  • Correct temperature.
  • Correct light intensity and
  • Correct relative humidity.

Importance of Tissue Culture in Crop Propagation

  • It is used to recover and establish pathogen-free plants especially in the control of viral diseases.
  • It is used in mass production of plantlets or propagules.
  • It is fast and requires less space than the cultural methods of using cutting which requires a bigger space.

Transplanting Seedlings

  • Transplanting of vegetable and tree seedlings are generally the same.
  • Generally, vegetable seedlings are ready for transplanting when they are one month old or have 4 -6 leaves or are about 10-15cm in height.
  • Before transplanting, the nursery bed is adequately watered 3 – 4 hours before lifting the seedlings.
  • This ensures the seedlings are lifted easily with a ball of earth around the roots to minimize root damage.
  • Tree seedlings take a little longer to reach transplanting age compared to vegetable crop seedlings.
  • The roots are trimmed before lifting the seedlings.
  • Transplanting should be done at the onset of the long rains to give the young trees a good start.

After transplanting the young trees should be protected from damage by animals for a period of about one year.

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