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basic technology (Secondary School)

Types of building

  • Bungalow: It is dwelling built in a style developed from that of a form of rural house in India. The original bungalow typically has one story, few rooms, and a maximum of cross drafts, with high ceilings, unusually large window and door openings, and verandas on all sides to shade the rooms from the intense light and tropical heat. A house that is built on one level.
  • One-storey building: A house that has a ground floor and the first floor only.
  • Multi-storey building: A house that has many levels.
  • Skyscrapers: A very tall building.
  • Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.
  • Semi-Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.
  • Duplex: A house that is made up of two apartments.
  • Mansion: A very large house.
  • Terraced houses: These are blocks of building that are constructed together side by side.

 

Evaluation

  1. State ten(10) types of building and explain.
  2. What type of building is the ‘Diligence campus of Good Shepherd School’.

 

COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS

Building materials could be natural or man-made and can be classified into:

  1. Primary/non-convectional materials: These are materials used for constructing buildings in their natural state without any processing. They are also known as traditional materials e.g. mud, stone, grass, straw, timber etc.
  2. Secondary/convectional materials: Theseare materials that have undergone processing and have changed in structure e.g.cement, steel, bricks, precast concrete, glass, etc.

Materials used in building construction

Building Element Primary materials Secondary material
1. Foundation Mud, Stone Sand-Crete blocks
2. Wall Mud, Stone, timber, bamboo, mud bricks Sand-Crete blocks, red bricks
3. Wall decoration Animal dung, local dye, cowries Cement plaster, paints, tiles
4. Roof Bamboo, forest wood, corrugated metal sheets Seasoned timber, planks, nails
5. Ceiling Mat, asbestos Asbestos, plywood, plaster of Paris (P.O.P)
6. Floor Mud, cement screed Concrete
7. Window Timber, mat Glass, aluminum, metal, timber
8 Doors Wood/planks Plywood, timber, metal
9. Wall Shelve Forest wood Timber, plywood, glass
10. Lintel Thick timber Concrete with iron rod
11. Columns Wooden posts timber, Mud bricks Concrete poles with reinforcement

 

Evaluation

  1. List five primary and secondary building materials.
  2. Mention five materials used in constructing window.

 

DOORS

Movable barrier installed in the entry of a room or building to restrict access or provide visual privacy. Early doors were hides or textiles. With monumental architecture came pivoting doors of rigid, permanent materials; important chambers often had stone or bronze doors.

 

Pompeiian doors looked much like modern wooden doors; they were constructed of stiles (vertical planks) and rails (horizontal planks) fastened together to support panels and occasionally equipped with locks and hinges. The typical Western medieval door was of vertical planks backed with horizontal or diagonal bracing.

 

In the 20th century, a single, hollow-core panel door became most common. Other types include the revolving door, folding door, sliding door (inspired by the Japanese shoji), rolling door, and Dutch door (divided horizontally so that the lower or upper part can be opened separately).

Functions of doors

  1. They serve means of shutting and opening the entrance or exit.
  2. They serve as barriers against dangers and attacks
  3. They serve as protection of lives and properties.
  4. They serve as means of ventilation.

 

Types of doors

  1. Interior doors
    1. Panel doors
    2. Flush doors
    3. French doors
    4. Louver doors
  2. Exterior doors: They are used for decorative purpose only. They are carefully chosen to suit the architectural design of the building.
  3. Sliding doors: They are space-saving doors, which are for closets in bedrooms.
  4. Folding Doors: These are doors, which are easily installed as they as they take little
  5. Revolving Doors: They are usually traffic control doors within a building

 

Evaluation

  1. State four(4) functions of doors
  2. State five(5) types of doors

 

WINDOWS

Windows, today, are more of architectural features rather than mere necessary opening in a wall.

 

Function of windows

  1. It is used for admitting light and air.
  2. It serves as barriers to dangers and attacks.
  3. It is used to allow ventilation.

We have the following architectural designed windows:

  1. Bull’s eye windows
  2. Semi-circular headed windows.
  3. Cant bay windows
  4. Dormer windows

 

Evaluation

  1. State four(4) functions of windows
  2. State five(5) types of windows

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. The following are types of building except (a) Terraced house (b) Sheraton hotel

(c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper

  1. Blocks of building that are constructed together side by side is called ____ (a) Terraced house (b) one-storey (c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper
  2. The following are building operations except (a) setting out (b) erection of walls

(c) roofing (d) contracting

  1. The type of floor that consists of a series of closely spaced reinforced I-beams framing into girders is called __ (a) one-way ribbed slab (b) one-way reinforced floors (c) two-way reinforced floors (d) pre-cast concrete floors
  2. The following are examples of interior doors except (a) panel doors (b) flush doors (c) French doors (d) revolving doors

 

Theory

  1. State the functions of door.
  2. State the different types of floor

 

See also

WORKBENCH FITTINGS & APPLIANCES

FREEHAND SKETCHING

BOARD PRACTICES AND SCALE DRAWING

DRAWING PRACTICE

MEANING AND TYPES OF BUILDING

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