ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Agricultural activities are controlled or directed in one way or the other by government through their ministries of agriculture. They draw up policies and programmes, they make regulations for those concerned with agricultural development, they grant loans or credit facilities and subsidy, finance research, establish farm settlements and supply vaccine and quarantine services.
- Establishment of Agricultural Policies:
Every country has its own agricultural policies. Such policies in any underdeveloped economy may have the same goals which are summarized below:
- To increase the production of suitable food crops.
- To meet the needs and changing taste of the growing population.
- To increase the quality and efficiency of producing the major export crops as demanded by the world market.
- To provide employment opportunities through establishment of large farms.
- To supply the essential raw materials which are vital to the development of local industries.
- To increase the production of livestock so as to supply animal proteins in diets.
- Mention five goals of the government in establishing agricultural policies
- Establishment of Agricultural Programmes and Planning:
When a government has stated it policies, it draws up a programme for their execution. A programme is a projection of what is to be done in future; while a plan can be defined as an organization of goals and the means for attaining these goals. Some of the government programmes for agricultural development in Nigeria are listed below.
Extension Services, Farm Settlement Schemes, Agricultural Loan Schemes, Credit Facilities, River Basins Development Authorities, National Agricultural Insurance scheme, subsidies, Agricultural education and research, quarantine and vaccines, Operation feed the nation, Green revolution, Agricultural Development Project, DFRRI, National Agricultural Land Development Agency.
- Outline five programme of the government in agricultural development
3.Provision of Farm Inputs:
Farm inputs are either provided by the government or subsidized to enable peasant farmers to buy and use their inputs on their farms.
4.Provision of Basic Amenities:
Government decides to provide basic amenities in rural areas so as to decrease the migration of able-bodied men and youths from rural to urban areas so that they can stay and farm
- Provision of Storage and Processing Facilities:
Government decides to provide storage and processing facilities in all parts of the country in order to prevent food wastage and provide food in periods of scarcity.
6.Provision of Extension Services:
Government has helped to employ qualified and experienced extension officers that carry new ideas and innovation to rural farmers.
- Provision of Agricultural Education:
Due to the fact that some of Nigerian farmers are illiterate, the government decides to provide adult education in order to enable them to read and write, so as to accept new and improved techniques and innovations in agriculture.
8.Provision of Quarantine Services:
Plant quarantine regulations are made by government to prevent the introduction and distribution of foreign plant diseases and pests into the country.
- Provision of Research Work:
In order to improve the local varieties of crops and breeds of animals, the government set up some research institute to provide solutions to crops and animals problems so as to improve production. Examples of such institutes are
- Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) Ibadan.
- Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin.
- International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan.
- National Horticultural Research Institutes (NIHORT) Ibadan.
- Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) Benin.
- Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) Ibadan.
- Leather Research Institute of Nigeria (LRIN) Zaria.
- State five roles of Government in agricultural development in Nigeria
- Give five examples of research institutes in Nigeria
ROLES OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Non-governmental organizations are organizations established and owned by a person or a group of people whose primary objective is to find solutions to problems facing humanity. Examples of NGOS include:
- International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
- West African Rice Development Agency
- Food and Agricultural Organization
- Hunger Project (Ghana)
- Catholic Relief Service (Gambia)
NGOS are relevant to agriculture in the following areas.
- RESEARCH: – They research to come up with solutions to agricultural development and to develop new crop varieties as well as new breed of animals
- FINANCE: – They fund many agricultural projects
- PROVISION OF INPUTS: – They provide inputs such as fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and distribute to rural farmers
- EXTENSION SERVICES: – They create awareness to improve farmers’ agricultural knowledge and render other extension services
- RURAL DEVELOPMENT: – They provide basic amenities like road, water supply for rural farmers.
- IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE: – They provide these facilities to make year-round agricultural production possible.
- Outline five roles of NGOS to agricultural development in Nigeria.
- Give five examples of Non-governmental organization in Nigeria
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- State five research institutes in Nigeria that contribute to the improvement of crops and animals.
- Give five examples of non-governmental organizations that contribute to the development of agriculture.
- Outline five roles of government in agricultural development in Nigeria
- Discuss briefly the basic roles of NGOS in agricultural development.
- Which of the following agricultural programmes was designed to attract young educated people to take up farming? A. O.F.N B. Farm settlement scheme C. Green revolution programme D. Agriculture insurance scheme
- Which of the following is not a method of controlling pests? A. quarantine B. crop rotation fumigation D. mulching.
- The roles of government in the development of agriculture in Nigeria include the following except A. provisions of credit facilities for farmers B. education of farmers C. formulations of agricultural policies increasing cultivation of export crops.
- Government’s agricultural policies include the following except increasing the production of food crops and animals B. increasing the efficiency of production of export crops C. supplying raw materials for use in local industries D. increasing the number of peasant farmers.
- The following are non-governmental organization except A. Hunger projects in Ghana B. IITA C. Agricultural Development Authority D. West Africa Rice Development Agency
- List five agricultural programmes introduced by the government of Nigeria
- State two major objective each of the agricultural programmes listed in (1) above.