THE ROLE OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

Biology

THE ROLE OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

  • Endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones.
  • The glands have no ducts and are known as endocrine glands.
  • Other glands are known as exocrine glands because they have ducts.
  • The pancreas has an outer exocrine portion and an inner endocrine portion.
  • Hormones are chemical substances, protein in nature which are secreted at one part of the body and have effects on other parts not necessarily near the point of secretion.
  • They are secreted directly into blood and transported by blood.
  • Each hormone either has a generalized co-coordinating effect on the body or brings about a specific response in a particular target organ.
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Hormones produced in humans and the effects on the body.

Adrenaline

  • Enhance activity of sympathetic nervous system.

Over secretion

  • Increased heartbeat
  • High blood pressure
  • Thin toneless muscles.

Under secretion

  • Low blood pressure
  • Inability to withstand stress
  • Muscular weakness

Thyroxine

Over secretion is termed hyperthyroidism this causes:

  • Increased Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) hence increased temperature.
  • Person becomes very angry, nervous and hands may shake.
  • Increased heart beat which lead to cardiac failure.
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Under secretion is termed hypothyroidism:

  • Poor growth and mental retardation (cretinism).
  • Reduced metabolic rate hence decreased temperature.
  • Person becomes inactive and slothful.
  • Eyes and face become puffy as fluid gets stored under skin.
  • In extreme cases the tongue is swollen and skin becomes rough.
  • Enlarged thyroid gland.

Comparison between endocrine and nervous system

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Similarities

  • Both endocrine and nervous system are involved in the coordination of body functions.
  • Both have target organs.
  • Both are controlled via a negative feedback mechanism, i.e too high production results in a reduced production.

See also:

SPINAL CORD

FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

NERVOUS SYSTEM

PRODUCTION OF AUXINS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH

RECEPTION, RESPONSE AND CO-ORDINATION IN PLANTS

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