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Food & Nutrition


Mineral elements are also required in a very minor quantity by the body. They are inorganic in nature and perform a variety of functions like growth and vital metabolic activities. Mineral elements are usually classified into two groups. Macro elements. Micro elements. The macro elements are also called trace elements and they include sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, Sculpture and phosphorus while the micro elements are iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, fluorine, cobalt, selenium and chromium. The macro elements Calcium (CA): functions development of strong and health teeth. It controls cell activities. It is essential for blood clothing. Transmission of nerve rhythmic hearth beat. Aids normal functioning of the muscle. Food sources of calcium are; milk and milk water, hard water, sea food, green vegetables, fruits. MAGNESIUM (Mg): functions; development of bones Regulates muscles contraction. it is responsible for the transmission of nerve Food sources of magnesium are hard water,… Read More »MINERAL ELEMENTS



ANIMAL NUTRITION (FOOD SUBSTANCES) Food is a complex energy-rich organic matter which living organism feed on to obtain nutrients and substances necessary for life. Food substances are classified to six groups (i) Carbohydrate     (ii) Protein       (iii) Fat and oils    (iv)  Mineral salts  (v) Vitamins     (vi) Water and roughages. Carbohydrates These are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They have general formula (CxH2O)y. carbohydrate consists of simple sugar, starches, cellulose and glycogen. They are grouped into simple sugar or monosaccharide, double sugar/disaccharides and poly saccharide. The common sources include yam, cassava, potatoes, bread, cereals e.g. rice, maize e.t.c. Simple sugar or Monosaccharide These are the simplest sugar which consists of one molecule of simple sugars. They have general formula C6H10O6. Examples are glucose, fructose and ribose (C5H10O5) or galactose Disaccharide/Reducing sugar These are sugars which consist of two molecules of simple sugar which formed by condensation with the general formula… Read More »ANIMAL NUTRITION



These are organic compounds that are essential for proper growth, development and functioning of the body.  Vitamins are required in very small quantities They are not stored and must be included in the diet Vitamins Band C are soluble in water, the rest are soluble in fat Various vitamins are used in different ways   Mineral Salts Mineral ions are needed in the human body Some are needed in small amounts while others are needed in very small amounts (trace) All are vital to human health Nevertheless, their absence results in noticeable mulfunction of the body processes   Water Water is a constituent of blood and intercellular fluid It is also a constituent of cytoplasm Water makes up to 60-70% of total fresh weight in humans No life can exist without water Functions of Water Acts as a medium in which chemical reactions in the body takes place Acts as… Read More »IMPORTANCE OF VITAMINS, MINERAL SALTS, ROUGHAGE AND WATER IN HUMAN NUTRITION VITAMINS

Agricultural Science


Introduction Livestock nutrition: Livestocks are fed for the purpose of production and body maintenance. The edible material given to animals is called food. It is digested, absorbed and utilized in the body. Nutrients are organic and inorganic substances contained in the food materials Components of Food material Water, protein, Carbohydrates, Fats and oils, Vitamins Mineral salts.   Water Sources Free water (through drinking) Bound water (contained in feeds). Metabolic water (obtained from oxidation of food). Functions Regulates body temperature. Transport agent in the body. Universal solvent in the body. Gives shape to the cells (turgidity). Acts as a lubricant. Acts as constituent of body fluids. Factors Determining the Requirements of Water by Livestock Production level. Amount of dry matter eaten. Temperature of the surrounding area. Type of animal. Type of food eaten.   Protein Sources: Groundnut cakes, cotton seed cakes, fish meal, meat meal. Functions: Growth of new tissues. Repair… Read More »LIVESTOCK NUTRITION – SUPERB EXPLAINATION



COVALENT BONDING As well as achieving noble gas structures by transferring electrons from one atom to another as in ionic bonding, it is also possible for atoms to reach these stable structures by sharing electrons to give covalent bonds.   Depending on the number of electron pairs shared between atoms which participate in bonding, covalent bonds are classified as follows: Some simple covalent molecules   Chlorine For example, two chlorine atoms could both achieve stable structures by sharing their single unpaired electron as in the diagram. The fact that one chlorine has been drawn with electrons marked as crosses and the other as dots is simply to show where all the electrons come from. In reality there is no difference between them. The two chlorine atoms are said to be joined by a covalent bond. The reason that the two chlorine atoms stick together is that the shared pair of… Read More »COVALENT BONDING – SINGLE BONDS



WATER Pure water is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, neutral liquid. Pure water does not exist in nature but naturally in varying degree of purity. The main sources of water include rain, springs, borehole, lakes, seas and oceans: Water is generally used for the following purposes: (i) Drinking by animals and plants. (ii) Washing clothes. (iii) Bleaching and dyeing. (iv) Generating hydroelectric power. (v) Cooling industrial processes.   Water dissolves many substances/solutes. It is therefore called universal solvent. It contains about 35% dissolved Oxygen which support aquatic fauna and flora. Water naturally exists in three phases/states solid ice, liquid water and gaseous water vapour.   The three states of water are naturally inter convertible. The natural inter conversion of the three phases/states of water forms the water cycle. Liquid water in land, lakes, seas and oceans use the solar/sun energy to evaporate/vapourize to form water vapour/gas. Solar/sun energy is also used… Read More »WATER



SEED GERMINATION CONDITIONS, CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR GERMINATION What are the conditions necessary for seed germination? Seeds can easily be destroyed by unfavourable conditions such as excessive heat, cold or animals. Seeds need certain conditions to germinate and grow. Some of these conditions are external, for example water, oxygen and suitable temperature while others are internal such as enzymes, hormones and viability of the seeds themselves.   Water A non-germinating seed contains very little water. Without water a seed cannot germinate. Water activates the enzymes and provides the medium for enzymes to act and break down the stored food into soluble form. Water hydrolyses and dissolves the food materials and is also the medium of transport of dissolved food substances through the various cells to the growing region of the radical and plumule. Besides, water softens the seed coat which can subsequently burst and facilitate the emergence of the radicle.  … Read More »SEED GERMINATION CONDITIONS



WATER AND HYDROGEN Hydrogen is the simplest element. It is the first element in the periodic table, and it is placed in Group I of the periodic table.   Hydrogen Occurrence Hydrogen is the lightest element and the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen occurs naturally as a mixture of the three isotopes: Protium, H, Deuterium, D, (which is also called Heavy Hydrogen) and Tritium, T.   Preparation of Hydrogen by the Action of Metals The alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium react violently with water at the ordinary temperature, yielding hydrogen. 2 Li + 2 H2O H2 + 2 LiOH Calcium reacts with water more slowly unless the water is hot, when the action is more vigorous. Ca + 2 H2O H2 + Ca(OH)2   Preparation of Hydrogen from Action of Acids Hydrogen is prepared in the laboratory by the action of acids on metals. Dilute sulphuric acid containing 1… Read More »WATER AND HYDROGEN

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