UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION Origin of U.N.O The United Nation Organization came into being on October 24, 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, which collapsed as a result of the Second World War. The formation of the U.N.O. was led by the victorious powers, which were United Kingdom, America, Russia and China. The United Nation has its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Admission into the U.N.O is open to all peace loving countries. The Principles of U.N.O \tRespect for the sovereign equality of all nations. \tProvision of military assistance to troubled states when it is called to do so. \tPromotion of democratic principles. \tMaintenance of international peace and security. \tThe use of force in settling dispute should be discouraged. \tPeaceful settlement of disputes. \tUnity and cooperation among member nations. Aims and Objectives of the U.N.O \tTo maintain international peace and security. \tTo settle disputes through peaceful means. \tTo respect the sovereignty of member states. \tTo promote and encourage respect for human rights. \tTo develop friendly relations among states. \tTo accelerate the independence of trust territories. ORGANS OF THE U.N.O The following are the organs of U.N.O \tThe General Assembly. \tThe Security Council. \tThe Secretariat. \tThe trusteeship Council. \tThe international Court of Justice. \tThe Economic and Social Council. The General Assembly: The General Assembly is the central organ of the U.N.O. Its membership includes all member countries of the U.N.O. Each state is entitled to five representatives or delegation. The Assembly meets once in a year on regular session. The General Assembly has the power to deliberate on any matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the organization’s interest. On important matters, decisions are made by two –third of the members present to vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are reached by a simple majority. The chairmanship of the Assembly is held for one year and rotated among member-states. FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY \tDeliberative function: It provides a forum for the discussion of world peace and security and to make recommendation for the resolution of conflicts. \tApproval of annual budget: It is the function of the General Assembly to discuss and approve the annual budget of the organization. \tVoting: The General Assembly has the power to vote on issues of international importance. \tAdmission: It is the duty of the General Assembly to admit new members into the organization. \tEducation: The body elects non-permanent members into the Security Council and judges of international courts of justice. \tSettlement of dispute: It settles disputes by peaceful means and eradicates the causes of war and threat of wars. \tAnnual report: The General Assembly considers annual reports by the secretary-general e.g the state of the World address. \tIt guides jealously the realization of fundamental human rights and freedom for all people. THE SECURITY COUNCIL The Security Council has fifteen members. The membership was enlarged from eleven to fifteen in 1965. Out of the fifteen members, five, namely; The United States of America, Russia, China, France and Britain are permanent members. They also have wielded veto power. There are ten non-permanent members of the Security Council. They are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. The Security Council is the most powerful organ of the U.N.O and is charged with the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. FUNCTIONS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL \tPeace and Security: The major function of the Security Council is to maintain peace and security in the World. \tIt makes recommendation to the General Assembly for the appointment of Secretary-General. \tIt makes annual and special report to the General- Assembly. \tIt recommends the admission of new member state. \tIt investigates any matter that can lead to war and effect peaceful resolutions. \tIt recommends the suspension and expulsion of erring member –states to the General Assembly for consideration. \tA veto by any of the permanent member nullifies a decision. \tThe organ elects the judges of the World court in collaboration with the General Assembly. THE SECRETARIAT This is the administrative unit of the U.N.O. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General. He is responsible for the supervision and co-ordination of the activities of all the organs. The Secretary General is elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year term. He can be re-elected. The past Secretary General of U.N.O include the following ; Mr. Trigve Lie (Norway), Mr. Dag Hammars-Kjold of Sweden (1953-61), U. Thant of Burma (1961-72). Others are Kurt Waldheim of Australia (1972-82), Perez de Cueller of Peru (1982-92), Boutros Boutros Ghali of Egypt (1993-98), Dr. Koffi Annan of Ghana (1998-2006) and the incumbent Secretary General is Mr. Ban Ki Moon of Korea. FUNCTIONS OF THE SECRETARIAT \tThe secretariat handles all U.N.O. correspondence. \tIt gives annual report of U.N.O to General Assembly. \tThe secretariat performs administrative functions as the administrative headquarters of the organization. \tIt makes available all the materials needed for all meetings of the organization. \tIt serves as the information center of the organization. \tIt carries out the recruitment of U.N. staff. THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL The council comprises member states who administer trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council and other members determined and elected by the General Assembly. It oversees the administration of non-self governing territories under member countries. Its relevance has diminished with the independence of virtually all countries. FUNCTIONS OF THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL \tIt is responsible for the supervision of territiories placed under the international trusteeship system. \tThe council help tp promote the economic, social, political and educational development of these people. \tThe council receives and considers progress reports submitted by member countries. \tIt encourages trust countries towards their self government. \tThe council pays periodic official visits to the trust territories to assess the progress going on there. \tThe council accepts and considers petitions from the trusteeship areas. THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE This is the judicial organ of the U.N.O. It is also known as the World court. It has its headquarters in Hague, Netherland and it has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the security for a period of nine years. Members of the court can be re-elected at the expiration of their term of office and their appointment is on full time basis. FUNCTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE \tThis organ is the main judicial organ of the U.N.O. \tThe court settles disputes among member-countries of U.N.O brought before it. \tIt gives legal advice to the U.N.O and the specialized agencies. \tThe court interprets international conventions and agreements. \tThe court makes the decisions of the court binding on member-states in disputes. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL The council is made up of 27 members of which are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years with retiring members eligible for immediate re-election. This council is mainly responsible for all economic and social activities of the U.N.O. Settlements of issues or matters are reached by simple majority vote. FUNCTIONS OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL \tThe council is responsible for the economic and social activities of the U.N.O. \tIt prepares reports on the activities of all U.N.O agencies. \tIt organizes international conferences to examine the economic and social development problems of the World. \tIt makes recommendation for the promotion of fundamental human rights. \tIt gives information and assistance to the Security Council. \tIt involves in coordinating the activities of specialized agencies e.g Food and Agricultural Organization.