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SS 3 Government (1st Term)

Government (Secondary School)

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION (O.A.U)

ORGANS OF O.A.U Assembly of Heads of States and Government The Council of Ministers The General Secretariat The Commission for Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration   The Assembly of Heads of States and Government: The Assembly of heads of states and government is the supreme and most powerful organ of the organization. It is the highest decision making machinery of the Organization. This organ is made up of Heads of States of all member States. The organ meets once in a year but an extra-ordinary meeting can be convened if approved by two-third majority of its member States.   FUNCTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY OF HEADS OF STATES AND GOVERNMENT Appointment of Secretary General: It is the function of the Assembly of Heads of States and Government to appoint Secretary General of the organization. Admission of New Members: The Assembly of Heads of States and Government decide on the admission of new… Read More »INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION (O.A.U)

Government (Secondary School)

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION (O.A.U)

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF O.A.U The Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) was formed on the May 25th, 1963 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia and has its headquarters there. The organization came into existence after a long debate as to how the continent of Africa should be reorganized and strengthened so that their independence could be attained and maintained and to eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa. Before the formation of O.A.U, there were three main organizations which compromised to form the organization. The three groups were; Monrovia Group Casablanca Group Brazzaville Group   Casablanca Group: This group was made up of Morocco, Ghana, Libya, Guinea, Algeria, United Arab Emirate, Mali and came into being on January 1961. Monrovia Group: This Group consisted of Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Tunisia, Somalia and Togo. This group met in Liberia on May 1960. Brazzaville Group: This group was made up of twelve member countries.… Read More »INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION (O.A.U)

Government (Secondary School)

NON-ALIGNMENT

PROBLEMS OF NON-ALIGNMENT No Charter : Non-align movement have not enjoyed the respect an organization of its standard and status deserves because it has no charter, permanent executive body, Secretary General and other institutions of a well established international body. No Military set up: As a result of its military and economic importance, Non-aligned movement lacks the instrument of coercion to compel obedience to its resolutions. Poverty: Majority if not all members of the movement are poor. Being a member of poverty stricken countries, Non-aligned movement has become toil of the World powers politics. Failure to Remain Neutral: Non-aligned movement supposed to be a neutral body, but this body has not been able to achieve or maintain genuine neutrality. This has led to the withdrawal of some members of the movement like Burma and Libya. Differences in Ideological Stance: Non-aligned movement is a bundle of contradiction in the sense that… Read More »NON-ALIGNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

NON-ALIGNMENT

ORIGIN OF NON-ALIGNMENT The first statement on non-alignment was made by late Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He made the statement on September 2, 1946 in a radio broadcast. Non-Alignment is an international movement formed by different countries and mostly Third World countries in Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, Europe and so on. According to Nehru during his broadcast, he said ‘we decide as far as possible to keep away from the power of politics by groups, aligned against one another, which led in the past to World Wars and which may again lead to disaster.   Other founding fathers of this non-align movement were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, Egyptian President, Gamai Abdel Nasser. A meeting was held on the  18th and 19th of June  to discuss the rising tension in the World and the effect of this to World peace and security. This meeting which attracted about 25… Read More »NON-ALIGNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

FOREIGN POLICY

HOW NIGERIA HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT AFRICA IS THE CENTRE PIECE OF HER FOREIGN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Anti-racism and Anti-colonialism: Nigeria has shown that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy by ensuring total eradication of colonialism in any part of Africa. For example, the support for the M.P.L.A, this led to the liberation of Angola. Shagari donated 10Million naira to Zimbabwe for her independence celebration in 1980. Support of O.A.U: Successive administration in Nigeria has supported the Organization of Africa Unity politically, financially and in the areas of diplomacy. Nigeria believes that O.A.U is the best. Nigeria has demonstrated that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy formulation by establishing friendly relations with all African states. Assistance to Sister African States: To show that Africa is truly the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy formulation and also for the spirit of brotherhood, Nigeria has provided technical aid… Read More »FOREIGN POLICY

Government (Secondary School)

AFRICA AS THE CENTER PIECE OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

ORIGIN The origin of this concept ‘Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria’s policy’, could be traced to the administration of the first republic in Nigeria (1960-1966) headed by the Prime Minister, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. According to him,’ we belong to Africa and Africa must take the first attention in our foreign relations’. By Africa being the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy, it means that Africa should be given a place of pride in Nigeria’s foreign policy formulation. A significant milestone was reached in the conceptualization of the nation’s foreign policy when Africa was officially declared as the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy by the regime of Murtala/Obasanjo.   The following are the principles of the concept ‘Africa the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy’. Sovereignty and equality of all African states. Total eradication of racial discrimination and colonialism in Africa. To oppose aggression, support the demand for… Read More »AFRICA AS THE CENTER PIECE OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

Government (Secondary School)

NIGERIA AND THE WORLD

FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY Geographical location of Nigeria is one of the factors that affect the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. The geographical size of Nigeria as the largest coupled with its population, natural resources etc imposes leadership roles on the country. Demographic Factor: Demography means the population of the country. In terme of population, Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the entire black world. The large population of Nigeria contributes a lot to her strength and as a result, the country is expected by other countries in Africa to play a leadership role. Historical Experience: Nigeria’s foreign policy can also be conditioned by its historical experience. Nigeria was colonized by Britain and this colonial experience can affect her foreign policy. National Interest: The primary task of those involved in foreign policy is to articulate the interest of the country. This should form… Read More »NIGERIA AND THE WORLD

Government (Secondary School)

NIGERIA AND THE WORLD

INTERDEPENDENCE OF NATIONS The world has become mutually interdependence as a result of mainly evolution in the areas of transportation and communication. No nation is an island, it becomes imperative that the nations of the world should come together and derive more benefits from one another. It is in the bid to come together to derive mutual benefit that led to the interdependence of states and nations.   Nigeria as a country is not excluded from this interaction. It is through Nigeria’s interaction with other countries in the international community and her contribution towards the maintenance of peace that Nigeria maintains friendly relations with other nations of the World. Nigeria interacts with other nations in the areas of politics, economy and socio-cultural fields. It is this interaction among nations that constitute the making of the comity of nations.   REASONS FOR INTERACTION It is for the economic needs of the… Read More »NIGERIA AND THE WORLD

Government (Secondary School)

LOCAL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

STRUCTURE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT The structure of Nigerian local government has continued to change due to differences in the constitutional reforms that guide its operations. In the aborted third republic, the Babangida local government reforms made provision for the  Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary, Director of Personnel Management and Supervisory appointees. The Director of Personnel Management came from the senior cadre of the civil service at the local level.   However, the 1976 local government reform published in August 1976 by Olusegun Obasanjo changed the multiple system of local government to a single tier all purpose local government. All the local government were made third tier after the federal and state government.   FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Local government officials act as the elected representatives of a given section and a group of people. It helps to establish and maintain cemetery and homes for the less privileged. Local government involve in… Read More »LOCAL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

Government (Secondary School)

MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA

WEAKNESSES OF MILITARY RULE The military are not trained in the act of governance. Military regimes are by their nature autocratic; they are insensitive to the opinions or the demands of the people. The Nigerian civil war; the military was responsible for the civil war that claimed many lives. Military rule is based on fear because they possessed weapons of coercion especially the gun. Mismanagement and wastage of public fund. Increase in the rate of crime in the country. Violation of fundamental human rights. Lack of respect for the rule of law; the military do not respect the rule of law because military rule is conducted without a constitution. The military derive pleasure in passing harsh laws (draconian law) which some times take retro active effect. Failure to conduct an acceptable population census.   EVALUATION State 5 failures of the military regime in Nigeria. Discuss the military involvement in the… Read More »MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA

Government (Secondary School)

MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first military regime in Nigeria started in January 15th 1966, which was staged by five (5) Majors led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. It was a bloody military coup in the annals of Nigeria’s politics. Prominent Politicians including the Prime Minister, Alhaji Tafawa Balewa, Premier of Western Region, S.L. Akintola, the Minister of Finance, Chief Festus Okotie Eboh, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northern Region and many other top ranking officers in the armed force were killed.   This coup brought General Aguiyi Ironsi to power. On July 29th 1966, a counter coup was staged by Northern officers in the army and Aguiyi Ironsi Government was toppled and he was killed. Then Col. Yakubu Gowon took over from him. July 29th 1975 Coup brought an end to the 9 years rule of Yakubu Gowon when he was busy attending O.A.U. summit in Kampala Uganda. General… Read More »MILITARY RULE IN NIGERIA

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