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SS 3 Geography (1st Term)

Geograpphy Sec Sch

WORLD TRADE

Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services between one region and another, within the same country or between one country and another.  The former is known as internal trade while the latter is called international trade.   Types of Trade International Trade This trade is divided into two groups.  They are: Import Trade: This trade involves the buying of goods and services from another country into one’s own country. Export Trade: This is the selling of goods and services produced in one’s own country to another country.   Reasons for Trade Countries of the world are involved in trade for the following reasons. Differences in Natural Resources: The presence of natural resources in some regions and the absence of the resources in other regions have created opportunities for trade among nations. Differences in Climate: Different climatic conditions favour the growth of different crops for exports. The mediterrean… Read More »WORLD TRADE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION OF WEST AFRICA

International Economic Co-operation of West African state (ECOWAS) The economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) is a sub-regional organization formed by West African countries mainly to promote co-operation and development in all economic fields and to contribute to the progress and development of the African continent.                                                       ORIGIN OF ECOWAS The treaty called Lagos treaty formally establishing ECOWAS was signed on May 28th 1975 in Lagos, when the head of states and governments of fifteen independent states of West Africa converged in Lagos, where they signed the treaty. Guinea Bissau later joined to make up sixteen countries. The idea of establishing ECOWAS was conceived by the heads of states of Nigeria and Togo in 1973.                                  MEMBERSHIP OF ECOWAS There are sixteen member-states (countries) that make up ECOWAS. These are Nigeria, Togo, Benin Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, Mauritania,… Read More »ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION OF WEST AFRICA

Geograpphy Sec Sch

CLIMATIC CHANGE

Climate Change Meaning and Nature of Climate Change Climatic change refers to large scale alteration in the normal cycle of weather over pronounced time or duration.  This change or alteration is expressed in the irregularities (anomalies) of the cycle or regimes of major elements such as rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, pressure patterns and all-other elements otherwise called climate controls.   Causes of Climate Change Climate change may be caused by natural phenomena, as well as human activities. Natural Causes Volcanic Eruption: Natural incidents of climate change may be derived from volcanic eruption such as the 1972 eruption which took place in Kenya (East Africa). The volcanic materials and dust particles which were hauled (carried) over long distances led to significant impact in the weather of such areas.  It was reported that a pronounced dry spell occurred in the religions which were covered by the effects of these volcanic materials.  … Read More »CLIMATIC CHANGE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

MASS MOVEMENT

Mass movement can be defined as the movement of weathered materials (regolith) on slope under the force of gravity.  It can also be referred to as the movement of rock materials from one place to another under influence of gravity.                     FACTORS THAT AFFECT MASS MOVEMENT These are factors that affect mass movement Gradient of the slope. Human activities. Nature and weight of materials. Pressure of the lubricating moisture. Presence of vegetation.   Gradient of the slope The gradient of the slope is one of the most important factor that affect mass movement. For example, rock material move faster in steep slopes or hilly areas than in gentle slopes. Human Activities     The activities of man like construction, farming, grazing, running on the slope of mountains or highlands to promote or reduce the movement of rock materials. Nature and Weight of materials    It is noted that the loose… Read More »MASS MOVEMENT

Geograpphy Sec Sch

WEATHERING

Weathering is the disintegration and decay of rocks which is caused by forces of weather such as frost, rain and temperature changes. It can also be defined as the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller fragments by weather forces/atmospheric forces. It is a process of rocks breaking and decaying which are caused by climate factors (frost action, rain water and temperature) the nature of rock, relief and living organisms. TYPES OF WEATHERING There are three types of weathering: physical, chemical and biological weathering. PHYSICAL/MECHANICAL WEATHERING This is the process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of weather without any change in chemical composition of the rocks. It takes place in three major ways: Alternate heating and cooling: this process is more prominent in regions such as desert which experience daily extremes of temperature. During the day, the rocks are heated intensely by the scorching… Read More »WEATHERING

Geograpphy Sec Sch

DENUDATIONAL PROCESSES

Denudation is the process of lowering or sculpturing the earth surface by the activities of certain agents called denudation.  The word denude is an original Greek word for reduction, that is, lowering or cutting.  Therefore, denudation process are processes that contribute to lowering or reshaping the earth.   Types of Denudational Processes Denudation involves four major processes and a fifth, which strictly speaking is not considered as properly belonging to this group.  They include; Weathering Erosion Transportation Mass Movement Deposition   Weathering Weathering has been defined as the decay or decomposition of rock materials in situ. The process of weathering may be physical, chemical or biological.   Erosion Erosion is the removal of weathered materials.  It involves the detachment of debris or classic materials (broken material).   Transportation This involves the conveyance of the eroded materials away from the original point’s erosion by transporting agents such as running water, wind,… Read More »DENUDATIONAL PROCESSES

Geograpphy Sec Sch

LIMESTONE

LIMESTONE (KARST) REGION Meaning: Limestone or Karst region (Fig. 38.10) refers to a large stretch of land occupied by limestone which possesses a unique type of topography. Limestone is a sedimentary rock of organic materials made up of calcium carbonate.                                   Characteristics of limestone region Solubility: Limestone is insoluble but is made soluble by the action of rain water which dissolves carbon dioxide to form a weak acid which in turn acts upon it (limestone) to make it soluble. Presence of depressions: Limestone region contains depression of varying sizes and depths. Absence of luxuriant vegetation cover in limestone region: There is a complete absence of thick vegetation cover in limestone region. Absence of surface drainage: Most surface water flows for a short distance and disappears underground due to easy permeability of the region. Presence of jointed and rugged topography: Limestone regions are well jointed, stony with a broken landscape.… Read More »LIMESTONE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

VOLCANICITY

Volcanicity is the ejection of solid, liquid or gaseous materials from some deep-seated reservoir of molten magma beneath the earth crust to the earth surface. Volcanicity is defined as the rising of molten magma or other gaseous materials beneath to the surface of the earth or within the earth crust. Volcalnicity can be referred to as all various processes associated with the ejection of magma and relates the material from the depth below onto the earth crust.   PROCESS OF VOLCANICITY Volcanicity is formed when molten magma or mobile rock forces its way into the place of weakness or vent of the earth crust to escape quickly or explosively to the surface. Molten magma naturally escape through areas that have experienced mountain building process of compression and tension. The magma while moving through the vent to the earth surface may cool and solidify within the earth crust before getting to… Read More »VOLCANICITY

Geograpphy Sec Sch

Regions of Earthquake Occurrence

POPULAR EXAMPLES OF DISASTROUS EARTHQUAKES Africa is generally free from earthquake except along the edge (Morocco, Algeria and Egypt) where some earthquake have been recorded. In East Africa, some major earthquakes have occurred in the rift valley zone e.g. Tanzania, near the shore of Tanganyika in the December 1910 and in Kenya in January 1928. The Accra region of Ghana is the only part of West Africa that has not experienced tremors since the second half of the 18th century. Major tremors occurs in 1867, 1906 and 1937. In the last few years, minor earth tremors have been recorded in the basement complex areas in Nigeria particularly in Oyo and Ogun state. In 1964, earthquake measuring 8.5am struck Alaska, capital anchored was severally damaged even though the epicentre was 120km away.   THE EARTHQUAKE PROCESS The point in the interior of the earth from where the vibration or earthquake waves… Read More »Regions of Earthquake Occurrence

Geograpphy Sec Sch

EARTHQUAKES

An earthquake is a violent tremor in the earth crust which send out a series of vibrating waves in all directions. These are sudden movement or vibrations of in the earth crust. They occur as a result of disturbances within and below the earth crust   CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKES Most earthquakes one caused by sudden movement within the earth crust particularly where there are fractures of faults, stress is built up within the earth crust when a certain point of tension or intensity is reached, cracked or ships occurs within the earth crust. This produce the shock effect that sands but vibrations. The point at which the shock originates is caved in a nut shell earthquakes are caused by the development of faults or cracks in the crust which results from the collision between the tectonic plains.   The movement of molten rock below or within crust or the sudden… Read More »EARTHQUAKES

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