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SS 3 English Langage (1st Term)

English Language

UNSEEN POEM

INTRODUCTION TO THE UNSEEN POEM (I)        Features of unseen poem (ii)        The unseen poem must be short (iii)       Use simple language. For example   I hear a sudden cry of Pain! There is a rabbit in a snare Now I hear the cry again But I cannot kill from where   But I cannot tell from where He is calling out for aid Crying on the frightened air, Making everything afraid   Making everything afraid Wrinkling up his little face, And the cry again for aid And I cannot find the place! And I cannot find the place Where his paw is in the same Little one! Oh little one! I am searching everywhere. QUESTION: Give a Suitable but short title to this poem what is the Rhyme Scheme? iii.         The poet repeats the last line at every in the stanza in the first line of the next         stanza.… Read More »UNSEEN POEM

English Language

INTRODUCTION TO THE UNSEEN PROSE

Features of unseen Prose .           The following are some of features of unseen prose. (i)         Suspense: This technique involves the creating of expectation through       deliberate delay of information. It is commonly used to provoke reader             participation. (ii)        Flash back: This is a narrative techniques use to bring into focus earlier      occurrence in the course of a chronological sequence of events. It involves            injecting past happenings in the life of a character into the present. (iii)       Foreshadowing: By this device a writer provides hints in the story about a   further happenings. It gives the reader an intimacy on an event which is to    follow on later in the action. (iv)       Interior Monologue: This involves a cheater talking alone. It is mostly used in          drama where it is called a dramatic monologue. It is also known as “stream of consciousness” and it perfect form. (v)       … Read More »INTRODUCTION TO THE UNSEEN PROSE

English Language

Stress in Word of Seven Syllable

Stress in Word of seven syllable and in compound words Stress in an important feature of speech which create special problem to many Nigerian speak of English. As the air stream flow during speech, we exert some effort for the production of the sounds. Some syllable are uttered with greater breath effort and muscular energy than the others. Such syllable which are uttered with greater muscular energy are louder and longer and are therefore, said to be stressed. A stress syllable in the increase in pitch of the voice. The following are seven syllable word *           Conceptualization *           Decriminalization *           Dispropertionality *           Editorializing *           Infinitesimally *           Intercolonizing *           Irrefutability *           Manoeuvrability *           Oversimplification *           Proletarianism *           Sentimentalization *           Superficiality   More Example on Compound Words –           I left the book ON the table (not under the table) –           Peter AND Paul worked (insisting that both worked) –           We MUST honour… Read More »Stress in Word of Seven Syllable

English Language

REPORT WRITING

A report is a farm of writing that tells or narrate story. There are two basic types or reports. These are: Official Report and Private Report. An example of official report An accident which happened near you, which  you watched very closely The report of preceding of a meeting in which some formal resolution were made and which will be presented to higher officer for serious consideration. GUIDELINES TO A GOOD REPORT WRITING (i)         Pay attention to details and be accurate (ii)        Report precisely which event led to another and the result. (iii)       Consider the purpose for which you are writing the report. E.g. A report for            Police investigation have a different one from another. (iv)       If your report is direct, make sure you use the quotation mark correctly. A private report is an imaginary story. Sometimes it is a direct personal experience of the reporter as given to… Read More »REPORT WRITING

English Language

MODALS

These verbs cannot be used as lexical (or principal) verbs. Modal Auxiliary verbs are as follows: Ought to, might, need, used to, shall, should, world, may, can, could, will, must. (a)        OUGHT TO: We can use it to denote logical necessity. E.g. you ought to   respect your Parent (b)        MAY: It is used to demonstrate or express possibility. Example: I may go to           Jos after the conference, You can use ‘May’ when asking for permission to do something. E.g.      May I meet you today? May I take your ruler? May I eat the fruit? (c)        USED TO- It tells about the existence of something in the past. E.g. *           There also used to be some flowers in the school. – It also shows past habit. E.g. * She used to smoke * He use to steal his father’s money. – It means ‘accustomed to’. Eg. Mr Okoro is… Read More »MODALS

English Language

CONSONANT

The English consonant are (24) twenty four. A consonant is a speech sound which is produced with obstruction of airstream. The obstruction could be “partial” or “table”. For instance, when consonant like /p/ is produced, the flow of air is obstructed by the lips. The obstruction here is called a total obstruction because the flow of air is completely obstructed for a while. But when consonant like /f/ is produced, the flow of air is partially obstructed by the lower lip and the upper teeth.   The important thing about the production of a consonant, therefore, is that is always a degree of obstruction of the air is one of the three important factor used in classifying the English consonants. Classification of Consonant. These are: (i)         Place of Articulation (ii)        State of Glottis (iii)       Manner of Articulation The following are the twenty four consonant sound. P, b, t, d, k,… Read More »CONSONANT

English Language

LEXICAL AND AUXILASRY VERBS

Auxiliary verb are helping verbs. They help other both affirmative and negative sentence, meaning they are not use alone in sentences. They are also to ask question. Primary Auxiliaries: They are used with other verbs to show tense and number in sentence. They include: be, am, is, was, were, being, been, has, have, having, had, do, does, doing, did, and done. Modal Auxiliaries: They are used with other verbs to change their meaning. They express ideas such as possibility, intention, or permission e.g can, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, ought to, dare, need, used to and had better. In ordinary sentence, shall gives with I, and we to indicate the future tense e.g I shall eat the food We shall travel tomorrow. Will: goes with: he, she, you, they, it, Example –           We will come here today –           She will write the letter –           You will buy the… Read More »LEXICAL AND AUXILASRY VERBS

English Language

FIGURES OF SPEECH

“’’’Figure of speech” refers to the speech or expression which carry the picture of something to the people. There are many figures of speech in English Language but I would like to treat only the commonest ones. SIMILE This is a direct comparison between two essentially unlike things. Simile are introduced by ‘like’ and ‘as’. Example: as gentle as a dove. He fought like a lion. She ate like a wolf because she was hungry. An cunning as a fax. Etc. METEPHOR It is a simile reduced or compressed into a shorter form. Example: *           He is the pillar of strength for his family. *           She is a Gorilla. PERSONFICATION It refers to a figure of speech I which abstraction or in animal object are endowed with human qualities. Example *           Night spread her night wing on me. *           Hunger is shivering on the road. Hyperbole It is gross… Read More »FIGURES OF SPEECH

English Language

ESSAY WRITING

ARTICLE  An Article is written specifically for publication in news paper or a magazine. This implies that you must write with the reader in mind. The purpose of writing article  are as follows: (i)         To educate or inform (ii)        To prove a case or argue a point. (iii)       To entertain or Amuse (iv)       To provide guidelines for doing something. (v)        To give instruction on how to find a route.   FORMAT OF AN ARTICULE WRITING (a)        An article is not a letter. Therefore do not write it as a letter when the question        says ‘write an article for publication in a newspaper’ (b)        Use the first paragraph to establish the setting or situation under which you            are writing as well as to define your purpose. (c)        Use the succeeding paragraph to discuss your point of view. (d)        Use the closing paragraph to summarize, round off and conclude. (e)       … Read More »ESSAY WRITING

English Language

SQUENCE OF TENSES

TENSES There are twelve (12) tenses and each one has its own special use. ’Tense and ‘Time ‘mean different things – Tense is the change which takes place in the structure (i.e. farm) of the verb to donate time.   THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE This is used for something known to be true. Example. Dogs are animals. *The sun shines during the day. *Sugar is sweet.   THE PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE This can be used when we want to tell people that something is happening now, at the very moment of writing or speaking. E.g * I am going to lagos * Daniel is writing a letter *Nneka is insulting her friend. * Yakubu is dancing.   THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE It shows that a past activity is closely or almost joined to the present. Example *She has written a letter. * We have waited for four hours *They have… Read More »SQUENCE OF TENSES

English Language

CLUSTERS OF TWO CONSONANTS OCCUR INITALLY & FINALLY

In many Nigeria languages, there is no consonant cluster but in English, there may be an initial cluster of two or three consonants. In some English vowels, it is not easy to identify consonant cluster by merely looking at the written form of the word. Such words manifest the cluster only when they are pronounced. The following are example: bitten, coffin, garden, raffle, peddle, little, bangle, Word                                       Correct pronunciations New                                         / nju: / Few                                         / fju: / Tune                                        / tju:n / View                                        / vju: / Stew                                        / stju: / Stupid                                      / stju:pld /   Cluster of two consonants Bride                            crime Dwell                           flame Glad                            crop Play                             tray Thrice                          spice Shrink                          stand.   Cluster of three consonant Sprint                           spring Splash             stray Scrap                          scream Squire                          squeeze Strong                         stripe.   In an English word, there may be a consonant at the end of a word. While two or three consonant can… Read More »CLUSTERS OF TWO CONSONANTS OCCUR INITALLY & FINALLY

Adverb

An adverb modifies a verb. That is, it tells us how a verb does it work. The woman walk slowly across the field. Gbolahan rain adv She listened attentively Adv. Functions Of Adverbs and Adverbials The basic function of adverb and adverbials is that of modification. They modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. In the following examples illustrates adverbials. As modifiers the verb. He ate hurriedly.(modifies “ate”) Victoria will be visiting us today (modifies will be visiting). They were playing in the garden (modifies were playing “) As modifies of adjectives. We watched a very funny film ( modifies funny ) That girl has a really beautiful face (modifies beautiful). (C)As modifiers of prepositional phrases. (i) The motorist stopped right in the middle of the road ( in the middle of the road). (ii) Jide was left well behind in the race (  modifies in the race )   As… Read More »Adverb

English Language

FORMAL AND INFORMATION LETTERS

FORMAL LETTERS Formal letters are those written to official figures or people in official positions. This is why it is correct to say that a formal letter is one written to an office rather than to a person. A formal letter is largely in personal. There is usually no room for personal greetings, exchange of ideas etc. You go straight to the matter you want to discuss. In effect, formal short, as the following letter illustrates.   7, Adelani Street Abesan, Lagos 13th July,2015.   The Editor, Nigerian Journal Of Curriculum, Institute Of Education, University Of Lagos, Dear Sir, Title     Subscription: Yours faithfully,   Ojo Gbolahan.   Informal Letters These are letter written between close acquaintances, e.g. from a brother to his sister, from a man to his wife, from one student to another, from a colleague to another. As a result of the familiarity or love which… Read More »FORMAL AND INFORMATION LETTERS

English Language

MONOTHONGES AND DIPHTHONGS

Monopthongs is also calls pure vowel which are divided into two (2) segment, i.e seven short vowels and five long ones. E.g I:, I,e, e, ae, a: ,d , c: u, u: , u, , c:, a, Diphtongs – This is a double sound, The diphthongs are vowels but they differs from the pure vowels because their articulation     involves  glides from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore, a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation. If you far instance the word “toy” the articulation of the diphthong in the word star with /  / and end with /I /. There are eight diphthongs in English and their phonetic symbols indicate the initial and final vowels represented in the articulation. E.g /ei/, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /, /  /. /ei/ as in pay , again /  / as… Read More »MONOTHONGES AND DIPHTHONGS

English Language

ADJECTIVE AS NOMINALS

Adjective can function in the same way that noun do but they must be preceded by the article ‘the’ and must take plural verb. For instance (i)         The rich sometimes help the poor (ii)        The poor are always with us (iii)       The strong often defend the weak (iv)       The blind are usually provided with accommodation. (v)        They treated the wounded at the clinic.   Verb as Nominals There are two verb form that can  occupy the nominal position the infinitive form such as ‘to’ err’ ‘to, moke’ and the ground such as smok, dancing, and reading. E.g. (i)         It is prohibited to smoke in the class (ii)        Smoking is prohibited in the church (iii)       Dancing is an activity I always enjoy (iv)       To err is human, to forgive is divine (v)        Children must learn that reading gives Joy. (vi)       Her hobby is singing.   Noun Phrases as Nominals These… Read More »ADJECTIVE AS NOMINALS

English Language

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

An Argumentative Essay is the one that demands that the student should carefully consider an issue which has two sides to it and prove that one side has more merit than the other. It is like a debate in which you have two-sided topic and you have to decide that the other. Argumentative topic demand ones ( i) to prove a point (ii) Express an opinion (iii) Strike a balance between two side of an issue. Types of Argumentative Essay. There are three broad types of Argumentative Essay. What is common to all of them is that they all have two sides to them, which may not be too glaring at first (a)        Those that require one proving point- this require a lot of think and require a           lot of think and  generally proved on what one’s belief. (b)        Those that require you & Express your Opinion on an… Read More »ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

English Language

INTONATION PATTERN

Intonation is another feature of speech which affect the understanding of a message. This is the rise and fall of the voice in speech (or the vanation) in pitch intonation convey the attitude or mood of the speaker to his audience. Intonation is the change in the level of pitch (how high or low the voice is) make    speech interesting. The two basic pattern of intonation is the falling tune and the rising tune, using up         and down         for indication. Example Statement –           The ‘student are’ working’ hard’ (     ) –           Bola will be ‘here’ ‘anytime’ (      ) –           ‘Rose is a ‘beautiful girl (    ) The people in the ‘office ‘stole the car (      ) Incomplete Sentence ‘when she ‘comes to school……(      ) ‘if I were ‘you……..(       ) Just as the man arrived (       )   Command or Order; ‘Get out of here! (     ) ‘Open the ‘door at… Read More »INTONATION PATTERN

English Language

Narrative and Descriptive Essay

A Narrative is a story, a tale or an account of something that has happened and which one is retelling to another person. Writing a good Narrative. To write a good narrative essay or enjoy a good story telling, the following should be consider. (i)         The use of good language (ii)        Contain an element of suspense (this involves good presentation) (iii)       Appeal to the sense (of smell, touch, sight, feeling, and taste). (iv)       it should not be too complex (I.e. without too many sub-plot The above point means that –           tell a simple story with just a few characters so that you can handle the narration effectively. –           Write your story in such a way that you do not let your reader know the most vital result of the actions until the very end. –           Narrate your story so vividly that a reader would almost see the people, event,… Read More »Narrative and Descriptive Essay

English Language

PHRASES AND NOUN CLAUSES

PHRASES AND NOUN CLAUSES (ADJECTIVAL PHARASES, ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES) NOUN PHRASE A noun Phrases does the work of a noun in a sentence. Example Ade, the school driver, has died Jerusalem a city on high land has cool weather. NOUN CLAUSE A Noun clause functions as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb in sentences. In other words, a noun clause perform the function of a noun in sentence. It introduced by the following words what, that, how, when, if, etc. Example: (i).        How she escape the accident  is mysterious.             GN- Noun Clause GF-Subject of the Verb “is” (ii)        Mr. Ogbonnaya told me that he had delivered the envelop. GN- Noun Clause GF- Object of the verb “told” ADJECTIVAL NOUN: It does the work of an adjective in the sentence. It qualifies pronoun or noun. It is shown by the following words; whose where, that, whom,… Read More »PHRASES AND NOUN CLAUSES

English Language

FORMAL LETTER

A formal letter refers to letter to the press, business letter request for casual leave by staff in offices, an application for Job etc. It is also a letter written to people who are not close to us. FEATURES OF THE FORMAL LETTER Address: This should be written at the top of a letter on the right hand corner. Write the date in full and put a full stop after abbreviation Example 8, Adeosun Street, Ile-Epo, Oke odo, Lagos. 7th  July, 2015. The Recipient’s Address should be written on the left hand side below the writer’s address. Example The Director General, Ministry of Education, Ikeja, Lagos. Salutation (greeting) The name is salutation is followed by a comma, Example Dear Madam, Sir, Dear Sir, Dear Mr Ojo.. Title: A formal letter should have a title. Example: A letter of Apology, The causes of Road Accidents, The Importance of Agriculture in Nigeria… Read More »FORMAL LETTER

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