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SS 3 Agricultural Science (1st Term)

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE

MEANING OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE Agricultural insurance is the insurance policy which provides compensation to famers for losses suffered. For example, the loss of their crops due to natural disasters such as hail, drought and floods or the loss of revenue due to declines in the prices of agricultural commodities. Insurance is one of the tools that farmers and other stakeholders can use to manage risks that are too large for them to bear/manage on their own. Part of the risk is transferred to another, who takes it in return for a fee (or premium)   IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE Agricultural insurance plays an important role in simulating investment in agriculture and in stabilizing famers’ income. Insurance can assist farmers in accessing new opportunities by improving their ability to borrow either in cash or in kind as credit facilities. In doing so, farmers may potentially experience safer and possible higher returns… Read More »AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL FINANCING

Meaning of Agricultural Finance Agricultural finance is the act of acquisition and use of capital in agribusiness. It deals with the demand for and supply of fund order to carry out various projects on the field of agriculture. The main objective of financing is to increase and other productive factors, stocks available to farmers so as to expand production.   Meaning of Agricultural Credit Agricultural credit refers to a refundable loan granted to a farmer to enable him improve in his farming activities. it can also be defined as loan granted to a farmer by credit lending agencies for agricultural purposes.   Types of Farm Credit There are three major classes of farm credit: Short term credit: This is a productive credit which the borrower is expected to pay back within a year. It may be used to purchase items that can easily be used up with optimum output. Examples… Read More »AGRICULTURAL FINANCING

Agricultural Science

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

This is the introduction of semen into the reproductive tract of the female by a method other than natural mating. The semen containing the spermatozoa are carefully handled,diluted and stored in freezer at a temperature of -1960C in liquid nitrogen until it is required for use. For artificial insemination to succeed, the following must be ensured Viable spermatozoan must be used. Heat period must been observed. Special handling of spermatozoan because of short life span. Tactical introduction technique.   Method of collection of semen Artificial Vagina Massage method Electro-ejaculation. Recovery of semen from the Vagina after service.   EVALUATION What is artificial Insemination? State the methods of semen collection.   Advantages of artificial Insemination It is easier and less expensive than natural mating since the farmer is saved the expense of maintaining a herd of animals. Easier and cheaper to import semen than whole animal. Larger extent of using one… Read More »ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

Agricultural Science

ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

MEANING OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT Animal improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding only those animals that show the greatest merit under consideration such as good feed conversion, growth rate, disease resistance, egg size, etc. It also involves the upgrading of existing (local) breeds as a result of some undesirable characteristics which they possess.   AIMS OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT To produce animals that can give high yield or products in form of meat, egg, milk etc. To produce animals that can provide high quality of products such as yolk size, shell hardness etc. To produce animals with high feed conversion efficiency. To produce animals with high growth rate. To produce animals with early maturity. To produce animals which can adapt to climatic/environmental conditions. To produce animals that are resistant to parasites and diseases.   EVALUATION What is animal improvement? State five aims of animal improvement.   PROCESS/METHODS OF ANIMAL… Read More »ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

Agricultural Science

FISH POND

A fish pond is an artificial body of water in which fishes are reared for commercial purposes. There are various yes of fish pond. It is a confined body of water where fishes are raised under controlled conditions. Fish can also be raised in plastics, fiber stars and wooden rafts. There are three types of pond: Earthen pond Concrete pond Plastic pond   EARTHEN POND This involves digging the soil usually clay (25 %clay) to a depth ranging from 0.5- 1.0 m at shallow end and 1.5 – 2.0m at the drain end to raise fish. Pond can be of any shape as long as it is well constructed. However rectangular or square shapes are considered the best. This is usually practicable in swamping environment. This rule away the problem of water maintenance as there is natural flow in and out of water in the pond   (i) Excavated Pond… Read More »FISH POND

Agricultural Science

FISH FARMING

FISH FARMING Fish farming (pisciculture) involves raising selected fish species commercially underscientifically controlled conditions in enclosed water bodies such as ponds, lakes etc where they live, feed, breed and are harvested for man’s use. Common fish species reared commercially includes salmon, tilapia, catfish, crab etc. Fishery: This is the study of fish and other aquatic animals. Fish live in water bodies (e.g. ponds, lakes, oceans, seas, rivers), respire with the gills and possess fins for swimming. They are cold blooded animals because their body temperature changes with a change in the environment.   EVALUATION Define fishery. Mention five examples of cold blooded animals.   IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING Food: Fish and other aquatic organisms are used mainly as human food. Fish flesh is regarded highly for containing first class animal proteins, vitamins and many mineral salts and other chemical substances that are needed to keep the human body healthy and… Read More »FISH FARMING

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Agricultural extension is the process, system or service which assists farmers or farm people through educational procedures in improving farming methods and techniques. In other words, Agricultural extension is the process whereby the beneficial products of research are taken to the farmers and the problems of farmers taken to research institutions for solution.   Agricultural extension is an informal out-of-school voluntary agricultural educational program that involves the spread out dissemination of information on improvement in agriculture from researchers to farmers   OBJECTIVES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION To educate farmers and enable them abandon less productive traditional ways of farming for improved and scientific farming techniques To help improve the standard of living of the rural dwellers To help identify proper marketing channel To help farmers access and supervise agricultural loans To link farmers with research institutes To help accelerate the development of rural area   PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Extension education… Read More »AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Agricultural Science

ANIMAL NUTRITION (MALNUTRITION)

MALNUTRITION IN FARM ANIMALS Malnutrition is said to occur when a ration (amount of feed provided to an animal per day) does not provide all the food nutrients(carbohydrate, protein,fats and oils, vitamins, minerals, water and other feed additives) in adequate quantities. Those nutrients wanting are said to be deficient which eventually results in nutritional disease.   Nutritional deficiency is therefore defined as a disease condition which emanates from inadequate nutrition. It is indicated by specific symptoms when particular nutrients are absent or unavailable in the diet.   The table below shows some nutritional disease, their causes, symptoms and how they can be corrected.   MALNUTRITION DISEASES OF ANIMALS MALNUTRITION DISEASE CAUSES SYMPTOMS CORRECTION Ricket(Osteomalacia) Lack of Ca,Pand VitaminD Flexible and curve bones,soft egg shell Add fish meal,bone meal or Oyster shell Perosis or Slipped tendon. Lack of choline,folicacid,Ca,P in diet. Chicken lie down on their Kneel. Add Vitamin B Co… Read More »ANIMAL NUTRITION (MALNUTRITION)

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