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SS 2 Government (1st Term)

Government (Secondary School)

FRENCH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND France, in the administration of West Africa colonies constituted all of them into a loose federation with headquarters in Dakar, Senegal. A governor general was appointed in Dakar and he was in charge of the federation. France in her belief of the superior of French civilization and inferiority of Africa civilization adopted a system of administration known as the policy of Assimilation.   THE POLICY OF ASSIMILATION The policy of Assimilation involves the imposition of French culture on West African culture. This means the way of life, tradition, customs, beliefs, thinking, and traditional institutions gave way to a more advanced French culture and civilization. This Assimilation policy was practiced in the four communes. They are Dakar, Goree, Rufisque and Saint Louis.   FEATURES OF FRENCH COLONIAL SYSTEM (ASSIMILATION) It was centralized. It was a direct rule. West Africans were divided into two, citizens and subjects. Education was restricted… Read More »FRENCH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

Government (Secondary School)

INDIRECT RULE

Indirect rule may be defined as a British system of ruling her colonies with the use of local chiefs and other intermediaries and traditional laws and customs with British officials merely supervising the administration. Indirect rule was first introduced in Nigeria by Sir, Lord Frederick Luggard who described the system as a child of necessity. Lord Luggard is also referred to as the ‘father of indirect rule’.   FEATURES OF INDIRECT RULE Indirect rule used the existing traditional system of administration. It recognized the status of traditional rulers. Traditional laws and customs were used in the administration. It was supervised by British officials. It was not an expensive system of administration. Taxes were collected. Native courts were used for administration of justice. Native police and prisons were utilized in the system.   REASONS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF INDIRECT RULE Lack of personnel: Few Europeans were prepared to come to West… Read More »INDIRECT RULE

Government (Secondary School)

COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

DEFINITION OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA Colonialism may be defined as an imposition of a more developed culture over a less developed one backed up by expansionist and economic adventure. It may also be defined as the forceful ruling of one country by another. It is the extension of political control of one powerful nation over a weaker nation. This means the weaker nation is politically dominated and economically exploited by the stronger one. Colonialism is sometimes called imperialism.   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first attempt made by Britain to set up a formal government in Nigeria was in 1900. Before 1880’s, Europe had what is known as the industrial revolution. This brought the desire to source for finished goods. Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal were involved in the colonies in Africa. So, the competition led to the scramble and partition of Africa. At the Berlin West Africa conference… Read More »COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

Government (Secondary School)

PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM

PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM IN YORUBA LAND Oyo was a very large empire divided into different provinces. The system of government in the Old Oyo Empire was like most other kingdoms and empires that existed in Africa. It was monarchical in nature and was headed by a king called Alafin. Features of Yoruba Pre-colonial Political System The size of the political system was a very large one. The system was a constitutional monarch, the system was decentralized, and the Oba was not an autocratic ruler. There was a system of checks and balances so that the Oba did not abuse the power. The Oba only ratified the decisions taken by the chiefs. There was no system of taxation.   POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION Political head: The Alafin was the political head of the empire. He was chosen by the Oyomesi and seven hereditary king makers of the empire. It was claimed that the… Read More »PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM

Government (Secondary School)

PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION/POLITICAL SYSTEM IN NIGERIA

PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION IN HAUSA/FULANI LAND Historical background of the Hausa The Fulani assumed the political leadership of the Habe (Hausa) states in the 19th century after the jihad war led by Othman Dan Fodio. He established the Sokoto caliphate, which was highly politically centralized.   He introduced a new system of selecting rulers known as Emirs to rule the caliphate. Sokoto and Gwandu were made two headquarters for all emirates as each Emir owed allegiance to Othman Dan Fodio and his representatives at Sokoto and Gwandu.   POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION The Emirate: The caliphate was divided into emirates headed by an Emir possessing almost all powers. He was an authoritarian ruler. He made laws and maintained law and order according to Islamic rules. He was assisted by a number of advisers. These are: The Waziri- he was the head of all the officials. The Galadima- He is in charge of the… Read More »PRE-COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION/POLITICAL SYSTEM IN NIGERIA

Government (Secondary School)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

MEANING OF LOCAL GOVRENMENT A local government can be defined as government at the local level established by law to perform specific functions within defined area. It has the power to take charge of local political affairs. They are created by acts of parliament as avenues by which the federal government reaches the locality. They are usually the third tier of government. In Nigeria, they were created under the 1963 Republican constitution.   TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT      Professor Harold Anderfer classified local government into 4 basic types. They are: French Type: This type of local government is an extension of the central government. In other words, the staffs of local governments are also staff of the federal government. English Type: This type of local government has a feature of autonomy. Though federal government has some measure of control over it. Nigeria adopts this system. There is no local economy. Traditional… Read More »LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

PUBLIC CORPORATION

PUBLIC CORPORATION A public corporation may be defined as a business organization, owned, managed and financed with tax payer’s money by the government of a country. The aim is not to make profit but to render essential services to the members of the public. It is established by acts of parliament and they determine their functions.   Public corporations are owned by the government but are managed by boards of directors appointed by the government. Such corporations include, the National Port Authority (N.P.A.) Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (N.N.P.C.) Power Holding Company of Nigeria (P.H.C.N.) etc   FEATURES OF PUBLIC CORPORATION It is wholly owned by the government. Being created by special laws incorporating them makes it a legal entity. It enjoys monopoly as it does not compete with another organization in the provision of those essential services. Those who work under public corporation are not civil servants, they are known… Read More »PUBLIC CORPORATION

Government (Secondary School)

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

MEANING OF THE CIVIL SERVICE The civil service is an essential department in the executive arm of government through which the government implements its policies and programmes. It transmits government policies and programmes into services to the people. It is divided into departments called ministries. The political head of a ministry is called a Minister or Commissioner, while the administrative head is called Director General or Permanent Secretary.   CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Permanence in Office: Civil servants are career government employees who are employed under a merit system in which federal characters is applied. They enjoy a permanent tenure of office. Government comes and goes but the civil service remains. This enables them to carry out their functions. Political Neutrality: This means that they are to remain loyal and dedicated to the ruling party or government of a country. They are not allowed to engage in partisan politics, although… Read More »PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Government (Secondary School)

ELECTORAL COMMISSION

MEANING OF ELECTORAL COMMISSION An electoral commission is defined as a body responsible for organizing and conduction of elections in a political system. It is an independent and impartial body charged with the responsibility of conducting and organizing elections in a country. The commission usually has a head that is referred to as the Chairman of the Commission. There are other members of the commission that help in the smooth running of the affairs of the body.   FEATURES OF ELECTORAL COMMISSION Organizing and Conducting Elections: The Electoral commission has the sole responsibility of organizing and conducting all elections in a political system. Ensuring free and fair elections: It is also the specific duty of the commission to conduct Free and Fair Elections in a country. Announcement of Election Results: The body only, is permitted by law to announce election results. Independent Body: The commission is an independent and impartial… Read More »ELECTORAL COMMISSION

Government (Secondary School)

TYPES OF VOTING

PUBLIC OR OPEN BALLOT SYSTEM This is a system of voting in which voters vote at an open place in the clear view of candidates and the electorate. Under this system, the voters at election indicate their support for a candidate by a show of hands or queuing behind the candidate of their choice or his poster. In an open ballot, there are no pooling booths; ballot papers etc. This system of voting became popular during the Babangida’s regime in Nigeria.   MERITS OF OPEN BALLOT Openballot is cost effective in the sense that a lot of money that would have been used in building polling booths, printing ballot papers will be saved. The open ballot system is very simple and easy to understand Open ballot system helps to prevent rigging vices such as illegal printing of ballot papers, voters cards, thumb-printing of ballot papers etc The results of open… Read More »TYPES OF VOTING

Government (Secondary School)

ELECTIONS

MEANING OF ELECTIONS An election may be defined as an act of choosing or selecting candidates into different offices in government. The candidates are to represent the people of a country in the parliament or in other positions of government. It is a contest between competing political parties or groups to acquire political power through the ballot i.e. electorate’s mandate.   FUNCTIONS/ADVANTAGES OF ELECTIONS Elections are held to serve the following functions; Choosing of Representatives; Elections makes it possible for the citizens to choose those that will represent their interest and opinions in the government. Elections are used to change a government smoothly and orderly. Elections confer legitimacy on the government as representatives of the people Election makes the government responsive to the needs of the people since it can be voted out Elections give the political parties the opportunity to educate the people on national issues. Elections are used… Read More »ELECTIONS

Geograpphy Sec Sch

CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE

GREEK SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE This is one of the earliest climatic classification which was made by the Greeks. The basis for the Greek classification is temperature. This system of classification divides the world into three climatic zones. These zones are: Torrid zone: This zone is found within the tropics. It is very hot and has high temperature throughout the year. Temperate zone: It is found between the torrid and frigid zone and has moderate temperature. Frigid zone: It is found around the polar regions and It is very cold with low temperature all year round. It has lot of ice-caps in most part of the year.   KOPPEN SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE Thebasis for Koppen’s classification of climate aretemperature and rainfall. He identified five major climatic groups which correspond with the five principal vegetationgroups. These climatic groups are represented with capital letters as follows:   A-Tropical Rainy Climate… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

CLIMATE

Climate is the average weather condition of the atmosphere over a long period of time usually about 30-35years.   FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT OR DETEMINE CLIMATE Latitude 6. Cloud cover Altitude 7. Vegetation Distance from the sea 8. Planetary wind Ocean currents   Elements of climate Temperature Rainfall Wind Relative humidity Pressure Cloud cover Sunshine   EVALUATION QUESTION What is climate? Differentiate between weather and climate.   TYPES OF CLIMATE HOT CLIMATE (a)Equatorial Climate Location: This is located within 50 North and South of the equator. Areas: Amazon Basin of South America, Zaire Basin of Central Africa, The Coast of West Africa.   (b)Tropical Continental (Sudan) Climate Location: It is located between 50-200 North and South of the equator Areas: Central America, North Western part of South America, Interior upland of Brazil and Bolivia, West Africa, part of East Africa, parts of India and South East Asia, Northern Australia.  … Read More »CLIMATE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

ACTION OF WAVE

The action of wave as an important agent of erosion, transportation and deposition of material is confined to the coast of seas and oceans. The rate of marine erosion depends on the nature of the rocks, the amount of rock exposed to the sea, the effects of tides and currents and human interference in coast protection.   TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH WAVE (i)        Wave: Wave means turbulent movement of water as a result of wind moving over the water. (ii)       Tide: Tide is the alternate rise and fall of the surface of the sea approximately two times a day. (iii)      Current: Ocean current is the movement of water in the ocean in a particular direction. (iv)      Coast: This refers to the meeting point between the land and the sea. (v)       Shore: This is the part of the land that lies between high water and low water. (vi)      Beach: This refers to… Read More »ACTION OF WAVE

Geograpphy Sec Sch

ACTION OF GLACIER

The action of glacier is an important agent of erosion, transportation and deposition in temperate regions or mountainous regions.   TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH GLACIER Ice: This is solid form of water which results from freezing when the temperature is below 00 Snow: This refers to frozen water vapour that falls in form of crystals from the atmosphere. Snow-Line: It is the lower limit of snow cover on a mountain. Glacier: This means moving ice i.e large accumulation of ice in motion. Glaciation: It is the wearing away of the earth surface by glacier. Snow Field: This is the region or area that is permanently covered by snow   EVALUATION QUESTIONS What is glacier? Which parts of the world are mostly affected by glacier?   ACTION OF GLACIER EROSION Sapping: This is the braking up of rock by alternate freezing and thawing of water at the bottom of cracks. Plucking: It… Read More »ACTION OF GLACIER

Geograpphy Sec Sch

WIND IN THE DESERT

ACTION OF WIND IN THE DESERT The action of wind is dominant in desert and other semi arid regions of the world. Deserts are places with little or no vegetation. Deserts which are associated with aridity (dryness) are caused by low rainfall, high temperature, cold currents and high evaporation rate. Examples of Deserts are: (i)         Sahara desert (West Africa). (ii)        Kalahari and Namib deserts (South Africa). (iii)       Arabian, Iranian and Thar deserts (Middle East). (iv)       Australian desert (Australia). (v)        Atacama desert (South America). (vi)       Mohave desert (U.S.A).   CHARACTERISTICS OF DESERTS (i)         Extreme of Temperature.              (ii)    Low rainfall. (iii)       Absence of vegetation cover.      (iv) High evaporation rate. (v)        Wind action is dominant.            (vi) Presence of cold currents.   TYPES OF DESERTS There are five distinct kinds of deserts Erg or Sandy desert Hamada or rocky deserts Reg or stony deserts Badlands Mountain deserts   ACTION OF WIND EROSION Wind… Read More »WIND IN THE DESERT

Geograpphy Sec Sch

RUNNING WATER (RIVER)

ACTION OF RUNNING WATER (RIVER) Running water is one of the most important agents of denudation. Rivers are involved in erosion transportation and deposition of materials. TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH RIVERS (1)       Source of a river: The source a river refers to where a river starts or begins, usually around highlands. (2)       Course of a river: This refers to the path or channel through which the river flows. (3)       Mouth of a river: This is where the river ends or where it enters into the sea, ocean or lake. (4)       River basin or catchment area: It refers to all the areas drained by a river and its tributaries. (5)       Water shed or water divide:            It is the highland area which separatestwo or more rivers or two river basins. It is from the watershed that rivers take their sources. (6)       River regime: This refers to the seasonal changes in the volume of… Read More »RUNNING WATER (RIVER)

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