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SS 2 Food & Nutrition (1st Term)

Food & Nutrition


HERBS/ AND SPICES, FOODS FLAVOURING AND COLOURING Herbs and spices belong to a group of substances known as “Food Additives”. Food additives are substances deliberately added to food to improve the appearance, colour, texture, flavour, nutritive values, aroma and taste and also to preserve the food. By improving the flavour and texture of foods, herbs and spices excite the appetite and increase the flow of the digestive juices thereby making the food more easily digested. Herbs are usually obtained from the leaves of plant while spices are derived from the roots, seeds buds or the bark of plants. Herbs and spices should be purchased in small amounts so that they may be used before they become stale. Because they contain volatile materials known as essentials oils which give them their characteristics flavour and aroma.   Classification of Herbs and spices Herbs can be classified into two main groups. Viz: Natural… Read More »CONDIMENTS AND SEASONING

Food & Nutrition


Fish and sea foods are creatures that live in either fresh or salt water. They are broadly classified into two groups namely: Fin fish Shell fish: The fin are fish with fins on their bodies, they are further classified into two major groups; White or lean fish: have their fat stored in the liver and not between the muscle fibres. The flesh is white in colour. The oil from the liver of some large fish is extracted and sold for medicinal use, e.g. cold-liver oil. The white fish are cod, halibut, tilapia, and bream. Oily or fat fish: this is another type of fin fish having their fat all over their body especially the muscles fibres. They normally have dark looking flesh due to the presence of oil between the fibres. Examples are herrings, mackerel, salmon e.t.c. The shell fish they have a protective shell covering the flesh. Shell fish… Read More »SEA FOOD COOKERY

Food & Nutrition


MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS Milk is a creamy liquid produced from the mammary glands of all female mammals for feeding their young ones. Milk can be produced from cows, horses, goats, sheep etc. The commonly used worldwide is cow milk. It is one of the most valuable foods containing practically all foods substance. It is sometimes regarded as nature’s perfect food but this is only true for babies , the nutrients are not in the correct proportions for adults , the proportions of carbohydrate is too law and it also lacks iron and vitamin C . Milk is extremely valuable in the diet of invalids and convalescent on account of its food value. It is richly digested. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MILK The percentage nutrient composition is shown below. Composition of whole milk NUTRIENTS                                                               PERCENTAGE (%) Carbohydrate                                                                                      4.9 Protein                                                                                                 3.9 Fat                                                                                                       3.7 Water                                                                                                  87.2 Ash                                                                                                      0.7 Milk,… Read More »MILK COOKERY

Food & Nutrition


STRUCTURE OF THE EGG Eggs are produced by domesticated bird such as chicken, turkey, duck, goose and guinea fowl. The hen’s egg of average size weights approximately 56 g, they are covered with a hard protective shell which can be either be white or brown in colour. The colour of the bird depends upon the breed of the chicken and it is unrelated to the food value and quality of the egg. Eggs are spherical in shape with one end pointed and the other blunt. Immediately beneath the egg shell are two inner membranes which separate at the blunt end of the egg forming what is known as air space.  At the centre of the egg is the egg yolk which is held in position by two cords-like structures called Chalazae. The egg-yolk is covered by a membrane known as Vitaline membrane. Immediately after the vitaline membrane is the thick… Read More »EGG COOKERY

Food & Nutrition


Poultry refers to meat derived from some domesticated birds such as fowls, guinea fowls, turkeys, ducks and pigeons. The composition and nutritive value of poultry is similar to that of meat from animals. In poultry, especially fowls and turkeys, the fat lies under the skin and around the giblet; it is not embedded between the fibres as in meat. Poultry has lower fat content than meat and is therefore more easily digested than meat. Poultry can be classified in two: white meat and dark meat, the white meat consists of meat derived from the breast and wings of the bird while the dark meat refers to those gotten from the legs. The white meat is more digestible than the dark meat, this is because the dark meat is more muscular and of coarser fibre because of the greater muscular activity of the legs. Species Young Mature Chickens Young chicken, broiler,… Read More »POULTRY COOKERY

Food & Nutrition


Meat is the muscle derived from animals after slaughtering them. Meat is made of bundles of muscles fibres. Each separate fibre contains water, protein, numerous salts and extractives. The fibres are joined together and connected by to the bones of the animals by connective tissues and are connected to bones by tendons. White meat has a lower texture, with a less amount of fat and connective tissues e.g. veal, rabbit, chicken e.t.c. Red meat is the meat that contains more fat and connective tissues, it is found in pork, beef, lamb e.t.c. and has more flavour. Lean meat is the part of the meat that contains little fat but having no superfluous fat NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEAT Proteins: The major nutrient found in meat is protein. The protein found in meat is of high quality because it is rich in all the essential amino acids in the proportions required and… Read More »MEAT COOKERY

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