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SS 2 Civic Education (1st Term)

Civic Education


WHY LEADERS FAIL TO PROTECT THE INTEREST OF THEIR FOLLOWERS Leaders fail to protect the interest of their followers for some of the following reasons: Party Interest: Leaders fail to protect their followers’ interest because of the pressure from party leaders and members. They are put under intense pressure to satisfy the needs of their party members or otherwise they frustrate them out of office. Godfatherism: Most leaders emerge based on the financial support from their godfathers. They sometimes enter into an agreement to keep servicing their godfathers until they leave office. The money met for public projects are diverted to settle these political godfathers. Selfishness:Leaders may fail to protect the interest of their followers because of selfish motives. They are greedy and want to satisfy their personal interest without responding to the yearnings of their followers. High cost of Electioneering Campaign: The cost of canvassing for vote is high.… Read More »INTEREST OF THEIR FOLLOWERS

Civic Education


Political apathy is the lukewarm attitude or total refusal of the citizens to participate in the political activities of the state. They are not willing neither are they interested in public activities such as voting.   FORMS OF POLITICAL APATHY Refusal to vote during election. Unwillingness to join a political party. Refusal to register to vote during elections. Unwillingness to fight against electoral malpractices. Refusal to attend public protests/demonstrations. Refusal to attend political rallies and campaigns.   REASONS FOR POLITICAL APATHY Citizens refuse to participate in political activities for the following reasons. Political Violence DuringElection: Most elections in Nigeria are characterized by all manner of violence, killings and maiming. This has discouraged many people from active involvement in political activities. Election Rigging: Many people are of the opinion that their vote will not count due to the manipulation of election figures and result. Hence, they stay aloof. Unfulfilled Political Promises:… Read More »POLITICAL APATHY

Civic Education


Poverty is a situation whereby an individual is unable to provide adequately for his/her basic needs. Poverty is one of the major problems of developing nations, including Nigeria. The high level of poverty in the country has placed Nigeria as one of the poorest nations in the world.   EFFECTS OF POVERTY Poverty can lead to increase in crime rate in the society. It can lead to break up in marriages. It can make an individual to be irresponsible in the society. It reduces the level of savings and investment in the nation. It increases the level of dependency in a country. It leads to low standard of living. It can cause political apathy. It can heighten social vices in the society. It can lead to increase in government spending in trying to attend to social needs. It can cause school dropout of children.   EVALUATION Define poverty. Mention seven… Read More »POVERTY AND ITS EFFECTS

Civic Education


Political Party can be defined as association of people with similar political ideology who come together for the purpose of contesting election in order to gain political power and control government. The primary objective of any political party is to control government. They usually conduct primary elections within the party to select a flag bearer or candidate that will represent them during general election. Their membership cuts across different interest groups, class, ethnic boundaries and profession. Hence, political party is a good example of popular organization.   CHARACTERISTIC OF POLITICAL PARTIES Their main objective is to win election and control government. Their membership cuts across tribe, religion, profession, ethnic and regional divide. They conduct primary elections. They present candidates for election. The carry out campaigns and rallies. They ensure political education in the society.   FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES They help to promote unity in a state by bringing people… Read More »POLITICAL PARTY

Civic Education


Capitalism is an economic system whereby the major means of production and distribution in a state are owned and controlled by the individuals or private sector. Democracy on the other hand is a system of government whereby all qualified adult citizens participate in the administration of the state either directly or through their elected representatives.   Direct democracy is a situation whereby all the qualified adult citizens are physically present to get involve in decision making in the affairs of the state. Indirect democracy otherwise known as representative democracy or modern democracy is a situation whereby all qualified adult citizens participate in the affairs of the state through representatives who are periodically elected by them.   Capitalist democracy therefore is the operation of the principles of representative democracy in a capitalist economic system.   CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY Supremacy of the Constitution: Under capitalist democracy the constitution is the ultimate… Read More »CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY

Civic Education


National consciousness is the strong feeling of love, commitment, loyalty and affection that enables a citizen to work for the growth, development and progress of his nation. It is the awareness that enables the individual to pursue the interest of the nation above personal, ethnic, religious or tribal interest. It is the affection that compares an individual to advocate for the total freedom and unity of his nation.   National integrity is the complete adherence to the moral principles and standards that ensures the development and prosperity of a nation. It is national integrity that enables the individual to avoid all manner of sentiments and act rightly in the face of any situation. National unity is the deliberate effort made by the citizens of a country to work and promote the factors that ensures the unity of the nation. The above three concepts are interrelated. However, national consciousness is the… Read More »NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS, INTEGRITY AND UNITY

Civic Education


Traditions and customs are the age-long set of values and beliefs cherished by a particular group of people that affects their way of life. These traditions and customs are preserved by transmitting them from one generation to another. Nigeria, for example, has over 250 ethnic groups with their respective traditional beliefs and customs. Africa is believed to have the most dynamic set of traditions and customs globally.   WAYS OF PROMOTING TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS Traditions and customs are promoted through the following ways: Family: The family is the most effective medium through which customs, traditions and beliefs are transmitted from one generation to another. The family as the primary agent of socialization creates the platform for children to learn directly their local languages, how to prepare local dishes, position to take when greeting the elderly, local dressing that fits each occasion, production of local items such as mat, clay pots,… Read More »PROMOTION OF OUR TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS

Civic Education


DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF CITIZENS Duties and obligations are the constitutional responsibilities a citizen or citizens are expected to perform in the society for the smooth governance of the state. There are basically three categories of obligations: civic or political obligations, economic obligations and social obligations.   Civic or political obligations are the political duties of the citizens to the state such as voting during election, readiness to serve, obedience to law and order, etc. Economic obligations are the duties of the citizens that are associated with business, revenue, funding and maintenance of infrastructures. A good example of economic duty is prompt payment of taxes. Social obligations are the duties of the citizens that are related to the individual’s relationship with government agents, government properties and other citizens in the state. Examples of social obligations are respect for constituted authority, promotion of orderliness in public places, involvement in environmental sanitation,… Read More »DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF CITIZENS

Civic Education


Citizenship education is the process by which the citizens of a state acquire the relevant knowledge about their rights and obligations in order to become responsible citizens in the state. The primary objective of citizenship education is to create awareness of the rights the citizens are entitled toenjoy within the provisions of the constitution and their duties to the state as citizens.   IMPORTANCE OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION The importance of citizenship education is discussed below. It helps the citizens to know their rights: The first goal of citizenship education is to help the citizens to identify their fundamental rights and ensure that these rights are not infringed upon. It is this awareness that enables the citizens to seek for redress whenever their privileges are denied or violated either by the state, organization or an individual. It promotes responsible citizenship: Citizenship education enables the citizens to be law abiding in their… Read More »CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

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