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SS 2 Agricultural Science (1st Term)

Agricultural Science

FARMING PRACTICES

FARMING PRACTICES The following farming practices have consequences or effects on the soil;   BUSH BURNING This involves the setting of fire on the bushes to clear out the vegetation MERITS It releases potassium and phosphorus as ash It has some sterilizing effect on the soil It stimulate the growth of fresh grass It destroys soil borne pathogen or germs It destroys the seeds of weeds DEMERITS It destroys the organic content of the soil It reduces the population of soil live organisms It oxidase nitrogen and sulphur into gaseous forms It exposes the soil to erosion and leaching It may raise the PH level of the soil It causes environmental pollution It destroys the soil structure It reduces soil water content   OVERGRAZING Overgrazing is a situation where more animals than can be supported on a particular pasture are put there to graze. MERIT More feaces are dropped which… Read More »FARMING PRACTICES

Agricultural Science

PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES Plant nutrients are classified into two, these includes macronutrient and micronutrient.   MACRONUTRIENTS These are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in large quantities. Examples are: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur.   MICRONUTRIENT OR TRACE ELEMENTS These are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in small quantities. Examples are: Zinc, Copper, boron, molybdenum, Iron, Chlorine and Manganese.   FUNCTIONS AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS S/N ELEMENT FUNCTION DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS 1. Nitrogen i.       Aids plant’s growth and reproduction ii.     Promotes vegetative and short system growth iii.   Excess Nitrogen delay maturation and fruiting iv.   Promotes chlorophyll formation v.     Necessary for synthesis of plant hormones i.           Stunted growth ii.         Yellowing of leaves iii.       Leaves tend to drop iv.       Poor formation of fruits and flowers 2. Phosphorus i.       It aid enzyme reactions ii.     It is a constituent of cell division iii.   Increases soil resistant… Read More »PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION These factors are grouped into three, Climatic factor Biotic factor Edaphic factor   CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time. The elements of climate are: rainfall, humidity, light, temperature, drought, wind, sunlight, humidity e.t.c.   RAINFALL Rainfall is defined as the release of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere into the earth. It determines the distribution of crops and animal. It is necessary for seed germination. Excessive rainfall leads to leaching. It helps to dissolve nutrients, making it available for the plants. It determines the types of vegetation in an area. It determines seasons in Nigeria. Insufficient rainfall causes crop failure and poor yield.   DROUGHT This is defined as lack of or insufficient rainfall in the area.   EFFECTS It causes delay in flowering and flower abortion. Poor crop establishment.… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Agricultural Science

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

IRRIGATION This is the artificial application of water to soil or land for farming purposes.   FACTORS THAT DETERMINES IRRIGATION SYSTEM Availability of water. Slope of the land. Soil type. Type of crop. Size of the farmland.   IMPORTANCE OF IRRIGATION IN CROP PRODUCTION Irrigation softens the soil for tillage operations. It provides moisture in the soil for root absorption. It reduces the amount of salt accumulated in the top soil which could be injurious to the crops. It cools the soil, thereby reducing soil, theory reducing soil temperature. It enables crops to do well. It increases crop productivity and yields. It assists in production of crops all-round the year. It helps in microbial decomposition and nutrient release to the soil. It dissolves soil nutrient for root absorption.   NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF IRRAGATION It provides humid environment which favours the buildup of pests and diseases. It encourages the spread of… Read More »IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

Agricultural Science

SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARM STEAD

MEANING OF FARM SURVEYING Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farm land. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the farm.   IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEYING It helps to determine the farm land. It is useful for the preparation of feasibility studies. It ensures proper use of the farm land. It helps in proper location of the farm building. Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farm stead. The results of farm survey are used for soil classification. It can be used to make projection of future yield. It can be used as collateral for loan. It can be useful for the acquisition of C of O. It can be used to determine the gradient of the farmland.   EVALUATION What is… Read More »SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARM STEAD

Agricultural Science

FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

FARM MACHINERY Farm machinery includes various types of machines and implements used in the farm. These include tractor, plough, harrows, cultivators, ridgers, planter, harvesters, shellers, dryer, sprayer, and incubators TRACTOR: It is a powerful and expensive multipurpose motor vehicle used for lifting or pulling farm implements.   IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE TRACTOR The power takes off shaft (P.T.O) shaft used in drawing farm implements e.g. plough, harrow etc. The hydraulic control system which lifts mounted implements under the control. Internal combustion engine which uses diesel or petrol without spark plug. It has four wheels rubber tyres.   FUNCTIONS OF TRACTORS For transportation of farm input and outputs when the trailer is attached. It operates water pumps for irrigation or other farm purposes. Lifting of couples implement by the hydraulic system. Pulling of farm implement attached. Tilling the soil with appropriate implement attached. Planting seeds when coupled with planter. Spraying seedlings… Read More »FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

English Language

FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

The five major factors which control soil formation are: climate, parent materials, topography, biotic factors and time. CLIMATE: Climate is the average weather condition of a place over long period time. The elements of climate are: temperature, rainfall, wind and pressure. Temperature: The alternating cooling and heating of rocks results in continual expansion and contract which eventually make the rock to crack and breakdown  to form Soil. Rainfall: The action of running water from rainfall causes gradual wearing away of rocks during erosion to form soil. Rain drops provide water for hydrolysis, rainfall also breaks down some parent rocks to form soil. Wind: Rocks collide during the time of high wind velocity in desert, this collision results in breakdown of rocks to form soil. Pressure: High pressure on hanging rock may cause it to fail down and break in pieces, resulting in soil formation.   PARENT MATERIALS: These are the… Read More »FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

Agricultural Science

SOIL

MEANING OF SOIL Soil can be defined as the unconsolidated weathered materials found in the upper most layer of the earth surface on which plants grow. It provides support and nutrients for the plants.   TYPES OF SOIL The three types of soil are; Sandy Soil, Clay Soil and Loamy Soil.   SANDY SOIL A soil is said to be sandy if the proportion of sand particles in a sample of the soil is high. The particles are mainly quartz (SiO2).   PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL Sandy soil is coarse, grained and gritty. It is loose with large pore spaces. It absorbs and loses water easily. It is not sticky when wet and cannot form a cast or ribbon. It is well aerated with low water holding capacity. Percolation in sandy soil is high but capillarity is low. Sandy soil heats up easily during the day and cools down quickly… Read More »SOIL

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