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SS 1 Government (1st Term)

Government (Secondary School)

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

UNITARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT This can be defined as one in which all governmental powers and functions that exist in a state or country are concentrated in a single central government. There is no constitutional division of powers in the country. Examples of countries that adopts unitary system are; Britain, France, Italy and so on.   FEATURES OF A UNITARY GOVERNMENT There is no constitutional division of powers. All powers and functions are concentrated in the hands of the central government. It is suitable for homogenous states. The system is best practiced in a relatively small state or country. The constitution is flexible. The parliamentary is supreme in a unitary form of government. The central government may have the power to modify the constitution. There is no conflict of authority since the central government possess all the powers.   REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF A UNITARY GOVERNMENT For efficient administration.… Read More »TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION Political Socialization is a process whereby the citizens of a country are educated on the values, attitudes and beliefs of the political system. The political culture of the society is transmitted from one generation to another through political socialization.   The citizens of a country are politically aware and know the roles they should play. Through political socialization, the citizens display pride, patriotism, loyalty and above all nationalistic feelings to the nation.   Agents of Political Socialization The Family: the home is the first place one receives political upbringing. Children learn by observation and tend to do whatever they learn. The School: Through educational institutions, one can learn about national politics, history and practise how to play political roles. The Peer Groups: a person is known by the group he keeps. Playmates and friends influence one’s political views. Political Parties: they stimulate the political awareness and consciousness of… Read More »POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

STATE A state may be simply defined as a politically organized body of people occupying a definite geographical entity/territory with an organized government, free from external control and has coercive power to secure obedience from its citizens and others.   Characteristics of a State Population: one major feature of a state is population. There must be a given number of people without a minimum or maximum to occupy it. Territory; a state must possess a definite territory which includes air, ocean and other natural features. It might be either small or big with clear-cut boundaries separating it from others. Government; the government makes a state effective as it runs the affairs of the state. The government performs its function on behalf of the state as it makes and enforces laws. The government maintains the existence and survival of a state. Sovereignty; this refers to the power of a state to… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

FASCISM Fascism is an ideology based on the concept of force and total compliance to the tunes of the authority. It is regarded as a philosophy, principle, and organization of the aggressive nationalist and anti-communist dictatorship.   It started as a movement in Italy in 1922 and came to an end in 1943 under Benito Mussolini. The ideology condemns both capitalism and socialism, rejects peace, democracy and the rule of law and rather glorifies war.   Features of Fascism Fascism as an ideology encourages aggressive nationalism; In a Fascist state, the political leader is supreme, respected and even worshipped; The leader makes all laws. Rights and authority are derived from him; This system does not give room for the existence of any form of opposition. Where there is an opposition, it is usually destroyed by force; The state has absolute control over all aspects of a citizen’s life e.g. religion,… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

SOCIALISM Socialism may be defined as an ideology that advocates collective ownership, control and organization of the means of production, distribution and exchange of goods and services. In this system, most of the factors of production and distribution are controlled and operated by the government on behalf of the citizens. Goods and services are produced with the aim of satisfying the wants of the whole citizens and not to the profit derived.   This ideology was formulated by Karl Marx, a German (1816 – 1883) and through this ideology; he hoped to fight the evils of capitalism.   Features of Socialism The government owns and controls almost all the means of production and distribution; Goods and services are not produced to make profits but rather according to the needs and satisfaction of the citizens; There is a central planning of production, distribution and exchange of goods and services; Full employment… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

COMMUNALISM Communalism refers to a political and economic arrangement in which land, the major factor of production is collectively owned. In a communal community for instance, members pursue a common goal collectively and properties like land are owned collectively and shared among members on an equal basis. In this system, resources are utilized for the general interest of everybody.   Features of Communalism There are no class systems; everybody co-operates with each other; There is collective ownership of property; No member is allowed to own a private property; Members of a communal society share common culture and identity; The means of exchange is trade by barter; Everybody has the spirit of co-operation; they help each other in building houses, on the farm etc; Labour is not sold and there is absence of exploitation; It promotes collective interest and discourages individual objectives; The community is allowed to operate at full autonomy… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

LEGITIMACY The word legitimacy is derived from the Latin word ‘legitimus’, which means lawful or according to law. In government, it means the acceptance of the political system by the people in compliance with the laid down rules and regulations.   A government is considered to be legitimate if it has come into office through a general recognized and acceptable means such as a free and fair election. It also means the support of the people toward a government in power, since the stability of government depends largely on popular support from the people.   Factors that affect Legitimacy Leadership: when a leader performs very well, the people accept his regime as a legitimate one.   Common National Symbols: the existence of common national symbols like the National Anthem, Pledge, National Flag, Coat of Arms, National Passport etc encourages legitimacy. The observance of national holidays and acceptance of common heroes… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

POWER Power is the ability to control the actions of others irrespective of their wishes. It is the ability to enforce decisions or command through the possession of means of sanctions. It seeks to compel people to obey rules. Sanctions or punishments are often applied for non-compliance.   Forms of power Political power: this is the type of power that is exercised by the government in the running of the affairs of the state. Decisions made through this type of power are binding on the state. Power resides in the three arms of government and is derived from the constitution. Physical power: this type is often referred to as naked power. It involves the use of force to compel people to obey. The police, security services etc use this type of power and it often times may cause pain, injury or death. Military power: military power can be used to… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

FEATURES OF GOVERNMENT Government as an Institution has the following characteristics: Power: Power enables the government to influence the citizens and execute its policies. Power is a basic tool for maintaining law and order. Law: This refers to the body of rules that regulate the conduct of the people. It is called the constitution. It defines the rights and obligations of the citizens and functions of the government. Revenue: Government has to generate funds to carry out its policies. This is done by imposition of import duties and collection of taxes. Personnel: This refers to the able-bodied men and women who help the government to run its affairs. They include the public servants, judges, police, etc. Public support: No government can survive without public support. The government needs the support of the public to function properly as public support confers legitimacy and right to rule on government. Welfare services: Government… Read More »FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT AS AN INSTITUTION OF THE STATE Human beings in their relationships with one another tend to have diverse and conflicting interests in their existence in the society. The need to regulate the conflict of interest in man and the desire to set up a peaceful society led to the formation of government. If there were no agencies or a body to regulate people’s activities, the society would become what Thomas Hobbes referred to as a primitive society. This is a society where life is solitary, poor, wicked and short. In order to prevent confusion and disorder in a society, people will have to surrender their natural rights to a body or an agency of the state called government. The absence of government in a state will lead to anarchy, that is, a state of disorder and lawlessness where might is right.   Government therefore refers to the body of… Read More »THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT

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