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SS 1 Food & Nutrition (1st Term)

Food & Nutrition

ABSORPTION

The process by which the end products of digestion pass through the lining of the digestive tract is called absorption. Absorption takes place through the inner lining of the small intestine called villi. the simple sugar and amino acids enter into the blood directly while the fatty acids enter the blood system indirectly through the lymphatic system. Site Digestive juice Optimum pH Enzyme Functions (reactions) Mouth Saliva Alkaline Ptyalin Starch          maltose Stomach Gastric juice Acidic (due to the presence of hydrochloric acid) Pepsin   Renin Converts protein to peptide and peptone. Acts on milk proteins only and curdles it by converting the caseinogen (soluble) to casein (insoluble) Duodenum Bile secreted by the gall bladder Pancreatic juice produced by the pancreas Alkaline   Alkaline     Contains no enzyme but bile salts amylase Trypsin lipase The bile salts emulsify the fats.   Starch                               maltose Protein           peptides/peptones Fats                         fatty acids and                                  glycerol… Read More »ABSORPTION

Food & Nutrition

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The food taken into our mouth requires some kind of alteration before they can be absorbed into the blood stream. Digestion is the process by which food molecules are broken down into various small substances that can be absorbed into the blood stream and assimilated into the cells for utilization. Digestion is mainly a chemical process brought about by the action of many enzymes. The whole process of digestion takes place in the ALIMENTARY CANAL, which takes place in four major sections that is, the mouth, stomach, duodenum and small intestine. The mouth: In the mouth, the food is mixed and softened with the saliva secreted by many enzymes and masticated and crushed into smaller particles by the teeth. Saliva contains mucin which lubricates the food and makes swallowing easier, it also provides an alkaline medium necessary for the action of ptyalin, an enzyme. The stomach contains gastric juice which… Read More »THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Food & Nutrition

DIETARY DEFICIENCY

Some diseases are caused by lack of or shortage of specific nutrients in the meals we take, when this happens one begins to show signs of health imbalance. When a diseases is caused due to excess or lack of specific nutrient, the diseases are called malnutrition. To correct this, an intake of the nutrient which is lacking should be increased. Therefore malnutrition means imbalance of nutrient intake due to the consumption of too little or too much of one or many nutrients. There are two types of malnutrition: Under nutrition which is a condition resulting from an inadequate intake of food or poor utilization of nutrients in food; while over nutrition means excessive intake of one or more of the to the detriment of the proper functioning in the body system. Kwashiorkor: It is mostly common in children it is caused largely by lack of protein in the diet. Symptoms:… Read More »DIETARY DEFICIENCY

Food & Nutrition

MINERAL ELEMENTS

Mineral elements are also required in a very minor quantity by the body. They are inorganic in nature and perform a variety of functions like growth and vital metabolic activities. Mineral elements are usually classified into two groups. Macro elements. Micro elements. The macro elements are also called trace elements and they include sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, Sculpture and phosphorus while the micro elements are iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, fluorine, cobalt, selenium and chromium. The macro elements Calcium (CA): functions development of strong and health teeth. It controls cell activities. It is essential for blood clothing. Transmission of nerve rhythmic hearth beat. Aids normal functioning of the muscle. Food sources of calcium are; milk and milk water, hard water, sea food, green vegetables, fruits. MAGNESIUM (Mg): functions; development of bones Regulates muscles contraction. it is responsible for the transmission of nerve Food sources of magnesium are hard water,… Read More »MINERAL ELEMENTS

Food & Nutrition

Vitamins

Vitamins are inorganic in nature. They are required in a very little quantity by the body. Vitamin can be classified into two main groups: Water soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins: these are vitamins that dissolve in water. E.g. the B complex(B1) , B2, B6, B12, B15, folic acid, niacin, biotin pantothenic acid, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Fat soluble vitamins: these are the vitamins that can dissolve in fat and oil. These include; ADEK: vitamin A, D, E and K Some vitamins be synthesized from other substances in the body, such substance or compound that can be converted into the acting vitamins are called the pro-vitamins. Similarly, some substances interfere the proper utilization of and function of vitamins in the body. Such compounds substances are known as anti-vitamins. VitaminB1 Its chemical name is thiamine. Functions: – it promotes growth and increases appetite. – It is involved in… Read More »Vitamins

Food & Nutrition

FATS AND OILS

Fats and oil are another group of macro nutrients that is required by the body. It composes of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Excess carbohydrates and proteins can be converted into fats and stored under the skin. The structural unit of fats and oils are glycerol and fatty acid. Differences between fats and oils Fats Oils 1. Fats are solid at room temperature. Oils are liquid at room temperature. 2. Fats contain saturated fatty acid. Oils contain unsaturated fatty acids. 3. Fats are obtained from animals. Oil is obtained from plants and vegetables.   Functions of fats and oils It serves as source of heat and energy. It acts as insulator, thus preventing heat loss from the body. It acts as cushion to the delicate internal organs, hence, it protects them against shock and damage. It contribute to flavor and palatability of food. It provides satiety, hence, delay the onset of… Read More »FATS AND OILS

Food & Nutrition

PROTEINS

Protein is another macro nutrient required by the body. Protein is made up of carbon, hydrogen nitrogen, and oxygen. The major structural unit of protein is amino acid. Protein can be classified into two. Protein that contain all the essential amino acids are called first class or complete or animal proteins. The other class of protein is the second class or incomplete or plant protein because they lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Functions of proteins It promotes growth. It repairs worn out tissues. It serves as source of energy in the absence of carbohydrate and fats. It builds anti-bodies that fight against infections and diseases. It builds enzymes to catalyze chemical reactions of the body. It builds hormones that assist in the regulation of body processes. It forms the major structural component of the cells. It is responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits or characteristics… Read More »PROTEINS

Food & Nutrition

BASIC FOOD NUTRIENTS

Nutrients that are required in a fairly large quantity by the body are referred to as macro nutrients while micro nutrients are required in a very little quantity. All these nutrients perform specific functions in the body and their lack or shortage in our diet results to deficiencies. CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are mainly produced by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Animals obtain carbohydrate by consuming the carbohydrate synthesis by the plants. Carbohydrates can be classified into three namely: Monosaccharaides. Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides. Monosaccharaides These are the smallest units of carbohydrates referred to as simple sugar e.g. glucose, fructose, GA lactose etc. Oligosaccharides These are the carbohydrates that are made up of between 2 and 10 monosaccharaides units joined together e.g. maltose, lactose, sucrose etc. Polysaccharides They are made up of more than ten units of monosaccharaides joined together e.g. starch, cellulose, pepsin… Read More »BASIC FOOD NUTRIENTS

Food & Nutrition

Relationship between food and nutrition to other subjects

Food and nutrition is not an independent subject rather it is an area of study that cut across many other disciplines and also has a vital role to play in the continual existence of the human race. Food and nutrition cannot be divorced from agriculture. Their relationship is so strong that both comes under one world organization: FAO The food and agriculture organization which has its headquarters in Rome. The food consumed by man can be majorly derived from plants and animals, on the other hand, animals depend solely on their food. Therefore for food to be abundant for human consumption, both plants and animals must be catered for. This means agriculture which encompasses both crops and animals must be taken seriously and practiced widely. The related subjects are: Agricultural science. Biology. Chemistry Physiology. Food technology. Home economics. Food science. Food engineering. Micro biology. Medicine. Economics. Physics. 13. Physical &… Read More »Relationship between food and nutrition to other subjects

Civic Education

Career opportunities available in foods and nutrition

Career opportunities available in foods and nutrition are: Teaching. Dietetics. Hospitality and tourism Food science. Food science and technology. Food engineering. Hotel and catering management. Food research and development. Community nutrition. Institutional matron. Clinical nutrition. Nutrition in media.   Evaluation: mention the importance of human nutrition.   See also BASIC FOOD NUTRIENTS FOOD AND NUTRITION Chemistry as a Subject Situer quelque chose Exprimer la simultanitite

Food & Nutrition

INTRODUCTION TO FOOD AND NUTRITION

The search for food has been the occupation of mankind from the onset. Food is very important to our day to day life. Food can be defined as what nourishes the body. It is any substance which after consumption, digestion and absorption produces energy, promotes growth, repair body tissues and regulate all body processes. Food is able to perform all these functions because of the chemicals present in it which is known as nutrients. The study of these various nutrients in relation to the effect it has on human body is nutrition. Nutrition is therefore is the science of food in relation to health. Importance of human nutrition   . Food is important to man There is strong correlation between good food and intellectual development. It helps in maintenance of good health. To know the principles of food processing, food preservation and food preparation. People that are well fed have more… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO FOOD AND NUTRITION

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