Skip to content

SS 1 Data Processing (1st Term)

Data Processing (secondary)

DATA AND INFORMATION

Data are raw, unorganized or unprocessed facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organised. TYPES OF DATA Qualitative data  i.e descriptive information Quantitative data  i.e  numeric information   SUBDIVISION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA Continuous data: this can take any value. It is also known as measured data. It can take value within a range e.g  0-99, 10-20 etc. Discrete data: this type of data is whole in nature. It is not continuous. It takes a whole numbers and also called Counted data.   FORMS OF DATA Numeric  i. e  0-9 Letters  i.e  a-z or A-Z Symbols  e.g   + , _ , * , % , = , <, >, etc   EXAMPLES OF DATA Numbers, name of thing, place or animal, words, measurements, observations, descriptions of things etc.   SOURCES OF DATA Data can come from different sources depending… Read More »DATA AND INFORMATION

Data Processing (secondary)

ICT APPLICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

ICT has turned this world to a global village. Apart from communication, that is, reaching people both far and near; it has also made the work easier and better. Better productivity, salaries, health care and even farming and education. SECTORS WHERE ICT HAS PLAYED MAJOR ROLE Education Banking Industry Commerce EDUCATION ICT is applied in the education sector in the following ways: Research for teaching materials, online conference etc. ICT or computers are used as a reference tools. ICT or computer is used by the researchers to collect and process data. Computers are used as administrative tools. ICT offers interactive learning. BANKING SECTOR Banks use computers to control the entire banking system. On-line transactions by customers are possible 24 hour. Accessing company account by businessmen On-line. Supervision of banking activities by bank administrators. INDUSTRY Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control system. Automation in the production of goods.… Read More »ICT APPLICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Data Processing (secondary)

DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM A computer system consists of three main parts otherwise called components. They are : Hardware Software People ware   HARDWARE COMPONENT The computer hardware could be defined as the physical parts of the computer that we see, feel and handle. It consists of device for input, processing, storage, output and communications. Hardware can be divided into two sections: System Unit The peripherals   HARDWARE Hardware is the physical parts of the computer system that you can see and touch. They are the components that make up the visible computer. It consists of devices for input, processing, storage, output and communications. The basic parts of computer hardware can be divided into: System Unit Peripherals   CPU/SYSTEM UNIT The CPU is the brain of computer system and it can subdivided into: Control Unit Arithmetic and Logic Unit Memory Unit   CONTROL UNIT This is the unit of… Read More »DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

Data Processing (secondary)

DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

Digitalization is the process of converting information into digital format. This information may represent an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) organized into discrete set of its points or samples. This is the binary data that computers and many devices with computing capacity (such as digital camera and digital hearing aids) can process.   Digitalization can also be defined as the integration of digital technologies into everyday life. Digital system uses a binary numeric system in which electronic pulses are represented by either 0 for a Low pulse or 1 for a High pulse. Digital can more easily represent symbols such as alphanumeric characters that represent real world data than the analog system.   BENEFITS OF DIGITALIZATION Long term preservation of documents Orderly archiving of documents Easy and customized access to information Easy information dissemination through images and text, CD-ROM, Internet, Intranet and extranets. TYPES… Read More »DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

Data Processing (secondary)

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

SUPER COMPUTER These are the largest, fastest and most expensive computers. The cost is several millions of dollars and the speed is between 600 million to 900 million instructions per second (MIP). Another name for super computer is MONSTER. Scientists in weather forecasting, exploration make use of super computers. It can also be used for complex calculations e.g CRAY, X-MP etc.   MAINFRAME COMPUTERS A mainframe computer is a large computer in terms of price, size of internal memory and speed. It has a variety of peripheral devices such as printers, plotters etc more than those found with small computers, except small computers with large amount of external storage. Mainframe computers usually need a specialized environment to operate, with dust, temperature and humidity carefully controlled. They are used in large establishments e.g banks, airports etc. Examples of Mainframe computers are IBM 360/370,NCR-V 8800.   CONCLUSION We learnt that computers are… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

Data Processing (secondary)

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY TYPES

DIGITAL COMPUTER This is the most common type of computer today. It measures physical quantities by counting. Examples are calculator, digital wrist watches, digital fuel dispenser etc.   ANALOGUE COMPUTER This type of computer is used to measure and process continuous data such as speed, temperature, heartbeat etc. Examples are speedometer, thermometer etc.   HYBRID COMPUTER This type of computer combines the features of digital and analogue computers together. It is a combinations of digital and analogue computers.   EVALUATION List the classification of computers according to type Explain the difference between the classifications of computer according to type.   CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY FUNCTIONALITY Classification of computer according to purpose can be grouped into two (2), namely: General purpose computers Special purpose computers   SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTERS These are computers designed solely to solve a restricted class of problem e.g computer for medical diagnosis, weapon guidance, traffic control, weather… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY TYPES

Data Processing (secondary)

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

Consider the table below: Generations Of computers Year of development The Technology Used Characteristics Software Instruction Storage Capacity First 1951-1958     Vacuum tube Very big and slow in operation Machine language Small internal storage Second 1959-1964 Transistor Less heat generation High level & Assembly Core storage Third 1965-1975 100-1000 Chips Introduction of integrated circuit Multiprogramming Facilities Internal Fourth 1975-1982 1000 above VLSIC Introduction of Non-procedural language Flexible internal & external storage Fifth 1982 and above 106chips AI and Expert system Introduction of object oriented programming language Small but powerful network GENERAL EVALUATION Differentiate between the first and second generation of computers. Which of the generation of computer uses microchips? Which of the generation of computers used VLSIC? What is non-procedural programming?   WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT AI means………….A. artefact intelligence B. artificial intellect C. artificial intelligence D. attitude intelligence. Which of the generation of computer was between 1975 and 1982? A.… Read More »HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

Data Processing (secondary)

GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS Electronic machine which was distinct from mechanical computers evolved about 1945. UNIVAC is a good example of this generation of computers. Computers of this generation were characterized by: They used Vacuum tubes. They were very large and expensive. They were very bulky. They had a low retentive memory. They generated a lot of heat.   SECOND GENERATION Second generation computers were the replacement of vacuum tubes. Second generation computers utilized primary discrete TRANSISTORS. They had limited capability but were more advanced than the first generation computers.   FEATURES They were more reliable than the first generation. They could perform calculations. They had a more efficient storage facility. They generated lesser heat compared with the first generated computers.   THIRD GENERATION Third generation computers utilized INTEGRATED CIRCUIT [ICs] technology, Small Scale Integration [SSI] with more sophisticated software capability like multi-programming, multi-processing and operating systems as resource managers.… Read More »GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

Data Processing (secondary)

HISTORY OF COMPUTING

EARLY MECHANICAL COUNTING/CALCULATING DEVICES Abacus Slide rule   EARLY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES John Napier bone Blaize Pascal machine Gottfried Leitbnitz machine Joseph Jacquard Loom Charles Babbage analytical machine   EARLY ELECTRONIC COUNTING DEVICES Herman Hollerith punch card John Von Neumann machine   Man has put in every effort to have better methods of calculations. As a result of man’s search for fast and accurate calculating devices, the computer was developed. Essentially, there are three kinds of calculating devices: manual, mechanical and automatic.   ABACUS The first calculating device was probably Abacus. The Chinese invented it. It is still in use in some countries because of its simple operation. It is made up of a frame divided into two parts by a horizontal bar and vertical threads. Each thread contains some beads. It was used to calculate simple addition and subtraction.   NAPIER’S BONE The need for a better calculating device… Read More »HISTORY OF COMPUTING

Data Processing (secondary)

INTRODUCTION TO DATA PROCESSING

In this chapter, you shall learn about what is data and information; the difference between data and information. Attempt to distinguish between manual and electronic data processing.   DEFINITION OF DATA The term data means any basic fact which may be input to some processing system. A processing system is one where computations, comparisons and general manipulation of data are done. The processing may be people or machine e.g the computer.   Information on the other hand, is the end – result of a processing system. The information is needed by management for decision making. The relationship between data and information is shown in the diagram below:   WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING? Data processing is the task of using a collection of basic facts to produce information, usually it has no value in itself until it is subjected to analysis, validations and comparisons with other data produce result (information), for… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO DATA PROCESSING

School Portal NG
error: Content is protected !!