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Rainfall

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (CROPAND ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION) CLIMATE: This is defined as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time.   FACTORS OF CLIMATE: It includes rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, light, wind, pressure. Each of the factors has its own influence on agriculture. This is shown by the distribution of vegetation and crops in the climatic zones. The result is that when the soil condition is favourable, thick evergreen forest develops.   1). RAINFALL: Is defined as the amount and distribution of water precipitation within a given time in a given area.   RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERN West Africa is known for its high temperature throughout the year. It is brought about by the south- west monsoon trade wind blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. The wind blowing from the ocean to the inland drops some water. A narrow part of the… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION These factors are grouped into three, Climatic factor Biotic factor Edaphic factor   CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time. The elements of climate are: rainfall, humidity, light, temperature, drought, wind, sunlight, humidity e.t.c.   RAINFALL Rainfall is defined as the release of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere into the earth. It determines the distribution of crops and animal. It is necessary for seed germination. Excessive rainfall leads to leaching. It helps to dissolve nutrients, making it available for the plants. It determines the types of vegetation in an area. It determines seasons in Nigeria. Insufficient rainfall causes crop failure and poor yield.   DROUGHT This is defined as lack of or insufficient rainfall in the area.   EFFECTS It causes delay in flowering and flower abortion. Poor crop establishment.… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Environmental physiology refers to the effects of the environment on the growth and performance of farm animals. It is the study of the environment in relation to the response of farm animals. The effects could be high or low in nature. Moderation is the target for optimum growth and performance.   CLIMATE Climate refers to the atmospheric condition of a place over a period of time. It is marked by rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, sunlight etc.   RAINFALL High rainfall increases pests like tsetse flies, and diseases High rainfall causes chilling of young ones High rainfall does favor rearing of dairy animals Extremes of rainfall do not favor growth of grasses for foods   CONTROL OF RAINFALL Shelter Rain break Drainage channels Building orientation   WIND Wind aids the spread of air-borne diseases e.g. tuberculosis; and death eventually Moderate wind velocity promotes good ventilation. Scare animals producing undesirable level of… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Geography

TYPES OF RAINFALL

Relief/Orographic/Mountain rainfall Rain experienced on the windward slopes of mountains or hills formed when moist air is forced to rise over a mountain or a hill. How it Forms Moist air is forced to rise over a hill or mountain. The temperature and air pressure decreases making it to expand. Air cools due to decreased temperature and decreased pressure causing it to expand. Moisture condenses forming tiny water droplets (clouds). The tiny water droplets in clouds merge and become too heavy to be suspended in air and fall as rain. Air proceeds to the leeward side with low moisture content. Since its heavier due to being cool it descends over that side and gets warmed making it to hold onto the little moisture it had causing that side to receive low rainfall (rain shadow).   Convectional Rainfall Type of rainfall common near large water bodies formed as a result of… Read More »TYPES OF RAINFALL

Geography

FACTORS INFLUENCING RAINFALL TYPES AND AMOUNTS

Relief/Topography Relief features such as mountains and hills results in the rising and cooling of moist winds to form relief rainfall. Aspect Windward slopes which are on the path of rain bearing winds receive heavier rainfall than leeward slopes which face away. Forests and Water Bodies Areas near forests and large water bodies experience higher rainfall and more often due to high rate of evaporation. Air pressure High pressure areas receive low rainfall than low pressure areas due to pushing of air masses from high pressure to low pressure. The high pressure areas have descending dry air. Air masses When warm and cold air masses meet frontal rainfall is formed. Ocean Currents It influences rainfall whereby coasts washed by warm ocean currents experience heavy rainfall when moist onshore winds are warmed by the current and made to hold on to moisture which they release on reaching the land. The coasts… Read More »FACTORS INFLUENCING RAINFALL TYPES AND AMOUNTS

Geography

RAINFALL

Rain gauge is the instrument used to measure the amount of rainfall in a day. It should be made of impermeable material which can’t absorb water. How It’s Used/Works It’s taken to an open space to prevent water from dropping into the funnel. Its sunk into the ground to prevent evaporation The funnel top is left 30cm above the ground to prevent splashes of water and run off. After 24 hours water is emptied into the measuring cylinder. The reading of the amount of rainfall is got from the measuring cylinder in millimetres. The figure represents the millimetres of water falling on each square millimetre of the ground. It could be used to measure snow fall by melting it before the readings are gotten.   Calculating Rainfall Monthly Rainfall Total -Sum of rainfall recorded in a month. Annual Rainfall Total – Sum of monthly rainfall totals for 12 months. Mean… Read More »RAINFALL

Geography

RAINFALL

RAINFALL   Rain gauge is the instrument used to measure the amount of rainfall in a day.It should be made of impermeable material which can’t absorb water. How It’s Used/Works It’s taken to an open space to prevent water from dropping into the funnel. Its sunk into the ground to prevent evaporation The funnel top is left 30cm above the ground to prevent splashes of water and run off. After 24 hours water is emptied into the measuring cylinder. The reading of the amount of rainfall is got from the measuring cylinder in millimetres. The figure represents the millimetres of water falling on each square millimetre of the ground. It could be used to measure snow fall by melting it before the readings are gotten.   Calculating Rainfall Monthly Rainfall Total -Sum of rainfall recorded in a month. Annual Rainfall Total – Sum of monthly rainfall totals for 12 months. Mean… Read More »RAINFALL

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