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Carbohydrates are naturally occurring organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygenwith oxygen in the ratio 1:2 as in water.  The general molelcular formula of carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y  or  CxH2yOy.  Carbohydrates are generally polydroxyl aldehydes, ketones or any compound that on hydrolysis yields any of the polyhydroxides.  They are synthesized in green plants by photosynthesis.   CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrate Simple sugar                             Complex sugar (polysaccharides) Monosaacharide           Disacharides                   e.g. starch cellulose e.g. glucose                  e.g sucrose   EVALUATION Define carbohydrates. State one example each of simple sugar and complex sugar.   MONOSAACHARIDES Monosaacharides are simple sugar with three to six carbon atoms per molecule.  The most common and important of these are the ones with six carbon atoms per molecule called the HEXOSES. They have the same molecular formula C6H12O6 but different spatial arrangement.  Examples include glucose, fructose, galatose and mannose.   GLUCOSE (C6H12O6) Glucose, commonly known as grape sugar or… Read More »CARBOHYDRATES



POLYSACCHARIDES If many monosaccharides are joined together through condensation, a polysaccharide is formed Polysaccharides may consist of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharide units Examples of polysaccharides: Starch – storage material in plants Glycogen is a storage carbohydrate in animals like starch, but has longer chains Isulin – a storage carbohydrate in some plants e.g. Dahlia Cellulose – structural carbohydrate in plants Chitin – forms exoskeleton in arthropods   Importance and Functions of Polysaccharides They are storage carbohydrates – starch in plants glycogen in animals They are hydrolysed to their contituent monosaccharide units and used for respiration They form structural material e.g. cellulose makes cell walls Cellulose has wide commercial uses e.g. Fibre in cloth industry Cellulose is used to make paper Carbohydrates combine with other molecules to form important structural compounds in living organisms   Examples are: Pectins: Combine with calcium ions to form calcium pectate Chitin: Combine with… Read More »POLYSACCHARIDES

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