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Conductors, insulators and semi-conductors i) An insulatoris a material or object which resists flow of heat (thermal insulator) or electrical charges (electrical insulators). Examples are paraffin, wood, rubber, plastics etc. ii) Conductorsare materials that contain free electrons which carry an electrical charge from one point to another. Examples are metals and non-metals like carbon, graphite etc. iii) Semi-conductors are materials or objects which allow the flow of electrical heat or energy through them under certain conditions i.e. temperature. Examples are germanium, silicon, cadmium sulphide, gallium arsenide etc.   Electronic bond structure This is the series of “allowed” and “forbidden” energy bands that it y bands that it contains according to the band theory which postulates the existence of continuous ranges of energy values (bands) which electron may occupy “allowed” or not occupy ‘forbidden”.   According to molecular orbital theory, if several atoms are brought together in a molecule, their atomic orbitals… Read More »ELECTRONICS



Introduction In any chemical reaction, the existing chemical bonds are broken and new chemical bonds are formed. Hence, all chemical reactions are fundamentally electrical in nature since electrons are involved in some way or the other in all types of chemical bonding. Many chemical reactions utilize electrical energy, whereas others can be used to produce electrical energy. As electrical energy involves the flow of electrons, these reactions are concerned with the transfer of electrons from one substance to the other.   Conductors and insulators The ability to conduct electricity is the major simple distinction between elements that are metals and non-metals. Conductors A conductor is a material that conducts electricity but is not chemically changed in the process. All metals and graphite are conductors of electricity. Insulators An insulator is a material that does not conduct electricity. Such materials have no free electrons.   Summary of Common Electrical Conductors These… Read More »EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC CURRENT ON SUBSTANCES

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