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Conductors and non-conductors



IONIC THEORY To account for the phenomena of electrolysis the Ionic Theory was put forward by Arrhenius in 1880. The theory states that electrolytes are made up of ions, which are built up in certain patterns called crystal lattice. When these substances dissolve in water, the structure is destroyed and the ions are set free to move. Concentrated mineral acids such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid do not contain ions but they consist of molecules. However, when they are diluted, the molecular structure is destroyed and ions are formed. THE MECHANISM OF ELECTROLYSIS The conductivity of ionic compounds is explained by the fact that ions move in a particular direction in an electric field. This can be shown in experiments with coloured salts. For example, copper (II) chromate (VI) (CuCrO4) dissolves in water to give a green solution. This solution is placed in a U-tube. A colourless… Read More »IONIC THEORY



INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Chemistry is a branch of Science. Science is basically the study of living and non-living things. The branch of science that study living things is called Biology. The branch of science that study non-living things is called Physical Science. Physical Science is made up of: (i) Physics– the study of matter in relation to energy (ii) Chemistry– the study of composition of matter. Chemistry is thus defined as the branch of science that deals with the structure composition, properties and behavior of matter. Basic Chemistry involves studying:   (a) States/phases of matter Matter is anything that has weight/mass and occupies space/volume. Naturally, there are basically three states of matter. (i) Solid-e.g. soil, sand, copper metal, bucket, ice. (ii) Liquid e.g. water, Petrol, ethanol/alcohol, Mercury (liquid metal). (iii) Gas- e.g. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Water vapour. A solid is made up of particles which are very closely packed. It thus… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

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