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Agricultural Science


This is based on nutrient composition: Feed additives. Roughages Are feeds of low available nutrients per unit weight and high fibre content Examples: Dry roughages, Succulent roughages, Residues from agricultural by products and conserved materials. Characteristics Low level of available nutrients. Have high level of calcium especially legumes. Good source of vitamin A. Have high fibre content. Concentrates Are feeds of high available nutrients per unit weight. Examples: Maize germ and bran, malt extract, milk products, soyabeans, oil seed cakes, meat meal, bonemeal Characteristics Low fibre content. Feed content is consistently high. High digestibility of the feed. High in nutrient content.   Feed Additives These are substances added to the feed to increase; palatability, medication or hormones to make animals produce more. There are two types: Nutritive additives, such as mineral licks (maclick). Non-nutritives additives, such as: – medicants (coccidiostats), – Stilboestrol (used in beef animals) – Oxytocin (to increase… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL FEEDS



CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS All organisms cannot be suitably classified as either plants or animals based on CarolusLinneaus classification. Therefore five kingdoms have been generally accepted for all living organisms, these include Monera, Protista, fungi, plantae and animalia. ¬† KINGDOM MONERA (Prokaryotes) This group consists of simplest living organisms (bacteria, blue-green anabaena). They are microscopic single-celled. The cell wall does not contain cellulose. It is made up of protein and fatty materials. They have no definite nucleus. Nucleus lack nuclear membrane and DNA are scattered in the cytoplasm. They lack most cell organelles except the Reproduction is asexual by binary fission. ¬† KINGDOM PROTISTA They are unicellular The organisms are all eukaryotes i. e. cell have definite Most protists are aquatic organisms. They move either by cilia, flagella or Some are free living while few are parasitic. Protists can be broadly divided into two groups;… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS



CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS AND ORGANIZATION OF LIFE THE VERTEBRATES (PHYLUM CHORDATA) All vertebrates have the following features: A bilaterally symmetrical body which is divided into a head, trunk and a tail with a neck joining the head to the trunk in most vertebrates. An internal skeleton (endoskeleton) Well developed central nervous system and sense organs. A closed blood system Skin covered with scales, feather or hair. The phylum chordata (animals with notochord) can be subdivided into five classes. Thee include   Class Pisces (tilapia, shark, dogfish) These are fishes which are aquatic, cold blooded (poikilothermic) i.e. the body temperature varies with that of the surrounding). Their bodies are covered with scales. They breathe through their gills Fertilization is external They posses fins for locomotion Their bodies are streamlined in shape   Class Amphibians (toad, frog, newt) They are cold blooded animals. They spend most of their time on land but… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS AND ORGANIZATION OF LIFE



CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY SIZE There are four classification of computer by size name: (i) Micro computer (ii) Mini computer (iii) Mainframe computer (iv) Super computer   (i) Micro Computer: A micro computer is the smallest computer that has a processor on a single silicon chip. Its CPU is a micro processor chip. Examples of micro computers are personal computer (PC), laptop computer, desktop computer, palm top computer, etc. (ii) Mini Computer: Mini computers are smaller, less powerful and expensive than mainframe computer. They are used for special purpose or small scale general works. They are not as large as mainframe computer but they can store large amount of data. (iii) Mainframe Computer: These are large general purpose computer with extensive processing, storage, input and output unit. They are powerful and very expensive type of computer. They operate at a very high speed and they very large storage capacity and… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY SIZE



CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY TYPES (i) Digital Computer: This is the type of computer in which data are represented in digital or in discrete form, for example, 0, 1,2,3,4,5, etc. It is a type of computer that is used for processing numeric information. Digital computer measures physical quantities by using number to represent quantities. E.g. digital stop watch, electronic watch, calculator, computer, digital camera.   (ii) Analog Computer: This type of computer holds data or number in continuous or real form. It process data in the form of electrical voltage. E.g. speedometer, thermometer, slide rule, etc.   (iii) Hybrid Computer: This is the type of computer that combines both the speed of digital computer with the efficiency of analog computer. Hybrid computer can work by measuring as well as calculating the data. It is neither digital nor analog e.g. modern television, robot used in some industries etc. EVALUATION What are… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER BY TYPES



Pure Substance Pure means that only one substance is present in the material and can be a pure element or compound. A simple physical test for purity, and properties that can help identify a substance, is to measure the boiling point or melting point. Every pure substance melts and boils at a fixed temperature.   If a liquid is pure, it should boil at a constant temperature called the boiling point e.g. water boils at 100oC. An impure liquid will boil at a higher temperature if it contains a dissolved solid impurity e.g. seawater, containing dissolved salts, boils at over 100oC. The boiling then takes place over a range of temperatures. If a solid is pure, it melts sharply at its fixed melting point.   An impure solid melts below its expected melting point and the more impure, the wider the temperature melting range, e.g. a water and salt mixture… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES



CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES¬† Matter Matter can be classified as either a mixture or a pure substance. Mixtures contain at least two substances. If you can see the different parts of the mixture it is called a mixture.E.g. Soil and concrete   Properties of mixtures depend on the proportions of the parts. Have you ever made a cup of coffee and added too much sugar? Pure substances have properties that are always the same. You can identify an unknown substance by testing its properties, e.g. Gold     Activity Which of these substances is/ is not a mixture? What made it possible for you to determine whether or not it was a mechanical mixture? What about the other substances? Is it hard to tell them apart? Of course. It is hard to determine whether they are solutions or pure substances by just looking at them.   You must take into consideration… Read More »SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES

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