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COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL CELL AND PLANT CELL Plant Cell & Animal Cell Cell Specialisation Cells are specialised to perform different functions in both plants and animals Example; Palisade cells have many chloroplasts for photosynthesis Root hair cells are long and thin to absorb water from the soil Red blood cells have hemoglobin which transports oxygen Sperm cells have a tail to swim to the egg Multicellular organisms cells that perform the same function are grouped together to form a tissue Each tissue is therefore made up of cells that are specialised to carry out a particular function.   Organs An organ is made up of different tissues e.g. the heart, lungs, kidneys and the brain in animals and roots, stems and leaves in plants Organ systems Organs which work together form an organ system Digestive, excretory, nervous and circulatory in animals and transport and support system in plants organism. Different… Read More »COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL CELL AND PLANT CELL


THE CELL – Cell membrane, Cell wall, Plasma Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum,

THE CELL – Cell membrane, Cell wall, Plasma Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum & Ribosomes, Goigi Bodies, Mitochondria Introduction What is a cell? The cell is the basic unit of an organism. All living organisms are made up of cells. Some organisms are made up of one cell and others are said to be multicellular. Other organisms are made of many cells and are said to be multicellular. Cells are too little to see with the naked eye. They can only be seen with the aid of a microscope   The microscope The microscope is used to magnify objects Magnification The magnifying power is usually inscribed on the lens To find out how many times a specimen is magnified, the magnifying power of the objective lens is multiplied by that of the eye piece lens If the eye piece magnification lens is x10 and the objective lens is x4, the total magnification… Read More »THE CELL – Cell membrane, Cell wall, Plasma Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum,



CELL PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS CELLULAR (INTERNAL/TISSUE) RESPIRATION The oxidation of glucose in the cell to release energy is known as cellular respiration and it occurs in the mitochondria of all living cells. There are two types of cellular respiration i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration   AEROBIC RESPIRATION When cellular respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen is known as aerobic respiration. The largest amount of ATP possible is generated through it from one molecule of glucose with the release of carbon (iv) oxide and water as by product. C6 H12 O6           +       6O2                                                        6CO2             +       6H2O     +      38ATP   ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION In some organisms such as bacteria, fungi and endoparasites, the cells gets energy from breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen this is known as anaerobic respiration. In this type of respiration, lesser amount of ATP is produced. The pyruvic acid produced is converted to alcohol in… Read More »CELL PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS



CELL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT Environment/Nature and State of Matter Living cells are known to be surrounded by a watery environment. This may include: Fresh/salt water in which the unicellular organisms live, Intercellular fluid that bath the bodies of cells of higher animals.   The nature of states of matter makes diffusion and osmosis possible. Matter can be defined as any material that has mass and occupies space. It includes all the living and non-living things around us. Matter is also made up of tiny particles which may be molecules or irons and can exist in three forms; solid, liquid, and gas.   DIFFUSION Diffusion is the process by which molecules of substances move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (through the medium of air or liquid) until equilibrium is reached. The difference in the concentration of the substances in the two regions before diffusion… Read More »CELL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT



THE CELL: DEFINTION, STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS CELL THEORY DEFINITION AND FORMS OF CELLULAR EXISTENCE The cell is the simplest, smallest, basic, structural and functional unit of life. The cell can carry out all life activities such as growth, respiration e. t. c. Cells can exist in various forms which include As a single cell (unicellular forms) g. Amoeba, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Euglena Chlamydomonas(Chlamydomonas rivalries)   Chlamydomonas is a unicellular plant like protist, motile using its flagellum and has a cup shaped chloroplast. It is sensitive to light using its eye spot. In the presence of light, starch grains appear in the cytoplasm. These disappear in a dark environment.   Chlamydomonas cells through its flagella (whip like) respond to changes in the surrounding such as moving from a dark region to a region of light. This organism disposes off its excess water using its contractile vacuoles. It reproduces asexually and sexually when it… Read More »THE CELL: DEFINTION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

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