Punctuation marks are the marks or signs inserted in a piece of writing to mark off words or groups of words. The use of punctuation marks makes for effective presentation of ideas.
- Comma ( , )
The comma is used ……
- To mark off words in a list.
Example: She gave us two pencils, four rulers and pens.
- To mark off phrases or clauses;
Example: Having seen her son, she felt relieved.
- To mark off non-defining relative clauses;
Example: Mr. kargbo, who happens to be a lawyer, is aware of our situation.
- To mark off main clauses linked by a conjunction such as and, or, but, as ,for.
Example: They have been complaining about their flight since five years ago, but unfortunately, the management has not paid any attention
- In direct speech, to separate the speech (in quotes) from non-speech.
Example: She said, “Run as fast as you can”
- Semi – Colon ( ; )
A semicolon is used …
- To separate two main clauses, especially those not linked by a conjunction
Example: She looks awful; she needs a shower.
- In place of a comma, to separate parts of a sentence which already contains comma;
Example: He made up his mind to take the bull by the horns; he would purge the country, no matter the cost.
- Question Mark ( ? )
A question mark is used …
- To mark the end of a direct question;
Example: Have you had lunch?
- To express doubt
Example: He was in Toronto?
- At the end of a question tag
Example: Bisi left late, didn’t she?
- Colon ( : )
A colon is used …
- To introduce a list
Example: These are the items they are asking for: a bicycle, two goats and four gallons of palm oil.
- To introduce a phrase or clause which supplies additional information about the main clause
Example: He could not leave her in spite of her misbehavior: he lacked the courage.
Punctuate the following passage:
She was waiting for us small dowdy dirty in sharp contrast to the sham graudeur of the carson but unprepossessing as she looked the burgeo was wise in the ways of unforgiving world of water she was a proper sea – boat not a floating motel.
- Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Press.
- Tabloid – A newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers)
- Verbatim – A report written word for word (i.e. exactly as spoken or written)
- Journalism– The work of collecting and writing news, stories for newspapers, magazines, radio
- Press man – A journalist
- Column – One of the vertical sections into which printed page of a book, newspaper etc. is divided.
- Opinion poll – The process of questioning people who are representative of a large group in order to get information about general opinion.
- 7. Newsreel – a short film of news that was shown in the past in cinemas/movie theaters
- Commentator – An expert on a particular subject who talks or writes about it on television reporting on a particular area of news.
- Press conference – A meeting at which somebody talks to a group of journalist in order to answer their questions or to make official statement.
- Editorial – connected with the task of preparing something such as a newspaper, a book etc.
- Headline – The title of a newspaper or article printed in large letters especially at the top
- Byline – a line at the beginning or end of a piece of writing in a newspaper or magazine that gives the writer’s name.
- Type setter – a person, machine or company that prepares a book etc. for printing
- Ministers and other important persons in public life speak to journalist at a press _______ assembly B. conference C. opinion poll D. meeting
- A report written word for word is known as ____ A. verbatim B. copy right C. verboseD. news item
Effective English, page 131
- Comprehension (Reading to Grasp Sentence Paragraph Transition); An Absurdist Dramas pg 150
This drama is an absurdist one. The events are woven around strange and sometimes improbable situations. It creates a situation when things are only close to being done but are never done.
Answer the questions that accompany the passage.
Effective English, pages 150 – 154
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Form nouns from the following adjectives or descriptive word.
(a) serene (b) civil (c) antique (d) modern (e) grave (g) loyal
- Replace the following nouns with appropriate adjectives.
accurate poverty brilliance admiration power industry
Instruction: Choose the word that best completes each of the following sentences.
- The officer expressed his ____ at being dismissed. indignity B. indignation C. indigestion
- It gives me much _________ to welcome you to the beginning of the new session pleasure B. relish C. indulgences
- Miss Funke is very _______ with her pupils because she loves them all prevalent B. familiar C. popular
- He added a brief __________ to his letter. postmark B. postscript C. post mortem
- The __________ that the hospital should be upgraded was warmly welcomed design B. proposal C. theorem.
Practice 2, page 131, Effective English
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