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SS 3 Civic Education (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Civic Education

CIVIL SOCIETY | DEFINITION, ROLES, EXAMPLES, FACTORS

Civil society is the arena outside of the family, the state and the market where people associate to advance common interests. It is also referred to as the ‘third sector’ of society distinct from government and business organizations or the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens. Civil societies include professional associations, religious groups, labour union, citizen advocacy oragnisations that give voice to various sectors of society and enrich public participation in democracies. EVALUATION What is civil society? Give some examples of civil society.   Roles of Civil Society Civil societies are critical actors in the advancement of universal values such as human rights, the environment, labour standards and the fight against corruption.  Examples of Civil Societies or NGO’s in Nigeria are; Africa Youths International Development Foundation African Children Talent Discovery Foundations African Grassroots Development International African in Diaspora organization (Speed-Africa) Centre for Neighbourhood… Read More »CIVIL SOCIETY | DEFINITION, ROLES, EXAMPLES, FACTORS

Civic Education

FEDERALISM | REASONS, ADVANTAGES, PROBLEMS, CHARACTERISTICS

This is a system of government in which political powers in a country are shared between the central government and the component units. The central government is the federal government and the component units are the state and local governments. Nigerian federalism can be traced back to 1914 when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated because during this period, the powers of government were shared between the central governmentheaded by the Governor-General and the governments of Southern protectorates and Northern protectorates. REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA FEAR OF DOMINATION: in a multi-ethnic nation such as Nigeria, the fear of one ethnic group dominating other smaller groups led to the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. TRIBAL DIFFERENCIES: the differences in culture, religion, language, custom and tradition also contributed to the adoption of federalism. PROTECTION OF MINORITY GROUPS: it was also adopted to protect the minority groups from… Read More »FEDERALISM | REASONS, ADVANTAGES, PROBLEMS, CHARACTERISTICS

WHAT IS CONSTITUTION? | FULL EXPLANATION

A Constitution of a country is the whole body of fundamental laws or rules that guides a country. It can also be defined as a written or unwritten document containing the rules and regulations of a country. Types of constitution include: written constitution, unwritten constitution, flexible constitution, rigid constitution, unitary constitution etc. SOURCES OF A CONSTITUTION The sources of a constitution can be gotten from different ways which are: The acts of parliament; these are laws that are passed by members of the legislature (National Assembly) and State House of Assembly. Historian Documents; these are histories of man and the country which could be used as part of the constitution. Examples are The Bill of right or fundamental human rights of 1689, the politician rights of 1628 etc. Common Laws of the land; these are customs, conventions, norms, values, principles or traditions of the country. Written and commentaries of constitutional… Read More »WHAT IS CONSTITUTION? | FULL EXPLANATION

Civic Education

CITIZENSHIP | DEFINITION, TYPES, FORMS

Citizenship is the state of being a citizen. It also means the state of having rights and duties of a citizen. A citizen is a legal member of a state or country. The citizenship of Nigeria can be acquired through the following ways: Citizenship by birth Citizenship by registration or marriage Citizenship by naturalization   EVALUAION What is citizenship? State ways of acquiring citizensip. CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH The following people are citizens of Nigeria by birth Every person born in Nigeria either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents are citizens of Nigeria. Every person born outside Nigeria either of whose parents is a citizen of Nigeria. CITIZENSHIP BY REGISTRATION OR MARRIAGE A person can become a citizen of Nigeria through registration if he satisfies the following conditions: he is a person of good character he has shown a clear intension of his desire to live in Nigeria he… Read More »CITIZENSHIP | DEFINITION, TYPES, FORMS

Civic Education

CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION | FULL EXPLANATION

The civil service commission is an independent body set up by the government to recruit people into the civil service.  The commission is charged with the responsibility of promotion, discipline and dismissal of civil servants. The civil service commission is made up of members holding offices based on good behavior and criteria set up by the government and it has a chairman.  Functions of the Civil Service Commission Recruitment: It is empowered to recruit people into the civil service through open competition and interview. Promotion: It is empowered to promote civil servants from one salary scale to another. Discipline: The commission also disciplines civil servants who disobey the rules and regulations of the civil service. Transfer: It transfers civil servants from one ministry to another Dismissal: It has the power to dismiss any civil servant who is found wanting in the discharge of his duties. Retirement: It is also charged… Read More »CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION | FULL EXPLANATION

Civic Education

CIVIL SERVICE | FULL EXPLANATION

The civil service is a department in the executive arm of government which is responsible for the execution of policies and programmes of the government.  The civil service workers are known as Civil Servants.  Each ministry in the civil service is headed by Ministers or Commissioners.  Characteristics of Civil Service Neutrality: Civil service workers are not expected to participate in partisan politics unless they resign their appointment. Permanence: The civil service is a permanent government institution that does not change with the government.  The workers also enjoy security of job. Anonymity: A civil servant is not expected to reveal or speak to the press disclosing official secrets unless authorized by the minister. Impartiality: Civil servants are also expected to serve any government or political party in power without fear or favour. Merit: Employment into the civil service is based on merit and not to be based on favouritism. Expertise: Civil… Read More »CIVIL SERVICE | FULL EXPLANATION

Civic Education

RULE OF LAW | FULL EXPLANATION

What is rule of law?  Rule of Law is the Principle that law (as administered by the ordinary courts) is supreme and that all citizens (including members of the government) are equally subject to it and equally entitled to its protection. It can also be defined as the predominance of law over everybody.   The concept of the rule of law was popularized by professor A.V. DICEY in his book titled ‘introduction to the law of the constitution’ published in 1885. It emphasizes that government should rule according to the provisions of the constitution and that the government should be subject to the law. Also that no citizen should be punished except as prescribed by the law. The rule of law is also fundamental to the principle of separation of power which condemns the concentration of power in a single arm of government to avoid abuse of power.   EVALUATION… Read More »RULE OF LAW | FULL EXPLANATION

Civic Education

CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

Constitutional democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people which is based on the supremacy of the constitution. It can also be explained as a democratic system in which the will of the people prevail, there fundamental human rights recognized and protected and the principle of rule of law strictly adhered to.  TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY DIRECT DEMOCRACY This is also known as classical democracy. It is a form of democracy in which all adult citizens  take active part in the management and political running of the state. This type of democracy was practiced in Athens, the ancient city of Greece.   INDIRECT DEMOCRACY This is also called representative democracy. This form of democracy is built on the principle of majority rule because it allows a few elected representatives to make decisions and formulate policies on behalf of the people. In other words, a… Read More »CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

Civic Education

LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS

LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS Human rights can be restricted for the overall good of the citizens and the country at large in the following ways: A citizen may be denied some of his rights if he is detained by law. A citizen’s right to life may be denied if he is condemned to death by the law court as a result of murder, armed robbery etc Right to life is also restricted by the law which forbids a citizen from killing himself or herself. Right to fair hearing cannot be exercised beyond the highest court which is the Supreme Court in Nigeria. Right to private property may be restricted by the right of the state to compulsorily acquire private property for public use. Declaration of dusk to dawn curfew in periods of emergency or chaos may limit the right of a citizen such as freedom of movement. The police in… Read More »LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Civic Education

CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION A citizen is a legally recognized member of a politically organized society known as a state.  A citizen is simply defined as a legal member of a state or country.   Citizenship education is the process of impacting information about citizen’s status, rights and duties into citizens with a view of making them understand the level of relationship expected of them in the state. It also involves the process of learning the skills, attitude and knowledge of participating in the affairs of a state or country to which you belong.   EVALUATION Who is a citizen? Define citizenship education.   GOALS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION It helps citizens to develop consciousness of their legal status in a state and give them patriotic zeal to serve their state and humanity in general. It helps citizens to acquire adequate knowledge about their rights and duties in their society. Citizenship education teaches… Read More »CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

Civic Education

COMMUNITY SERVICE

COMMUNITY SERVICE Community Service: This is the service we offer or render at free will. They are activities people engage in to develop their society and thereby make life better for themselves and other members of the society.   Community service which is an act of charity to others can be done individually or in group. A very good means through which the youths are made to engage in community development service in Nigeria is the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC). NYSC was established by decree number 24 on 22nd May, 1973 by the then military head of state General Yakubu Gowon, shortly after the civil war that ended in the year 1970. General Yakubu Gowon established the NYSC as part of his policy of reconstruction, rehabilitation and reconciliation. With the NYSC scheme, corps members are posted to different states in Nigeria and they have participated in community development service… Read More »COMMUNITY SERVICE

Civic Education

WOMEN TRAFFICKING AND CHILD LABOUR ERADICATION FOUNDATION

WOMEN TRAFFICKING AND CHILD LABOUR ERADICATION FOUNDATION (WOTCLEF) WOTCLEF is a non-governmental, non-profit making organization founded by the wife of the former vice president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief (Mrs) Titi Atiku Abubakar in the year 1999.   The aim of this organization is to partner with relevant agencies to restore human dignity by eradicating human trafficking and child labour in Nigeria. This foundation sent a private member bill to the National Assembly on the enactment of law prohibiting human trafficking and child labour in Nigeria. This bill was passed into law and assented/approved by the president of Nigeria on 14th July, 2003 as Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law Enforcement and Administration Act.   EVALUATION What is the reason for establishing WOTCLEF? When was the bill passed into law?   ACTIVITIES OF WOTCLEF PUBLIC SENSITIZATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT WOTCLEF organizes seminars, workshops, musical concerts, sports, media advocacy and state… Read More »WOMEN TRAFFICKING AND CHILD LABOUR ERADICATION FOUNDATION

Civic Education

COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING

GOVERNMENT AND INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS GEARED TOWARDS COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING Establishment of NAPTIP in year 2003. Government pledged in 2009 to annually fund the activities and operations of NAPTIP with over 7 million dollars. Government sustained efforts to raise awareness on human trafficking in both rural and urban areas by organizing workshops, seminars and conferences. Also by distributing manuals, textbooks, pamphlets, etc. printed in different languages on human trafficking and ways of preventing it. Enactment of trafficking law and administration Act in 2003 that was amended in 2005 to increase penalties and punishment for traffickers and to prohibit human trafficking in all form. Government together with international partners provide specialized training to officials of NAPTIP, Police, Custom and Immigration on how to recognize, investigate and prosecute human traffickers. The move towards enacting a law to directly address the challenge of Human Trafficking in Nigeria started with a private member bill sent… Read More »COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Civic Education

HUMANTRAFFICKING

HUMANTRAFFICKING Human trafficking is the recruiting, transporting, receiving and harboring of people in exchange for money. People who are most vulnerable to human trafficking are women and children and they are subjected into forced labour, slavery, servitude and prostitution. The people who engaged in human trafficking business are called human traffickers.   Human trafficking is a violation of human rights and the traffickers use their wealth and power to deceive and force the poor, less privileged, ignorant and vulnerable people in the society into all kinds of human exploitation that violates the fundamental human rights of the people involved.   Human trafficking could be done domestically or at the international level. Most international trafficking activities are targeted towards taking young ladies abroad through illegal means for the purpose of forcing them into prostitution. Domestic trafficking is targeted towards bringing young boys and girls into cities for force labour as house… Read More »HUMANTRAFFICKING

Civic Education

ADVANTAGES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

ADVANTAGES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY IT ALLOWS FOR PEACEFUL CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT In a constitutional democracy, elections are conducted within a regular interval as stipulated by the constitution and this makes it easy to change a government.   IT ALLOWS THE PEOPLE TO CHOOSE THEIR LEADERS Democracy gives people the opportunity of voting during elections for candidates of their choice. The candidate with the highest vote wins the election and form government.     IT PROTECTS THE FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE There are certain rights or benefits endowed naturally on every individual as citizens of a state, these rights could be economic rights, social rights and political rights. These rights are popularly called fundamental human rights and it is the function of every government to recognize and protect these rights. Constitutional democracy ensures that people enjoy their rights to the maximum.   IT PROMOTES POPULAR PARTICIPATION Constitutional democracy encourages peoples’… Read More »ADVANTAGES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

Civic Education

CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

Constitutional democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people which is based on the supremacy of the constitution. It can also be explained as a democratic system in which the will of the people prevail, their fundamental human rights recognized and protected, and the principle of rule of law strictly adhered to. It is a form of democracy founded, operated and controlled by the provisions of the constitution.   TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY DIRECT DEMOCRACY This is also known as classical democracy. It is a form of democracy in which all adult citizens take active part in the management and political running of the state. This type of democracy was practiced in Athens, the ancient city of Greece.   INDIRECT DEMOCRACY This is also called representative democracy. This form of democracy is built on the principle of majority rule because it allows a few… Read More »CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY

Civic Education

RIGHTS OF CITIZENS

RIGHTS OF CITIZENS The primary function of a state or country is to protect the fundamental human rights of its citizens and as a citizen of Nigeria you have the following rights entitled to you: Right to life Right to freedom from torture, inhuman or degrading punishment. Right to freedom from deprivation of personal liberty. Right to freedom from discrimination on the ground of sex, race or tribe Right to fair and equal hearing Right to private and family life. Right to freedom of movement . Right to peaceful assembly and association Right to freedom of expression and the press. Right to freedom from slavery and forced labour. Right to freedom from unlawful imprisonment. Right to ownership of property. Right to vote and be voted for. Right to education.   EVALUATION Mention your fundamental rights as a citizen of Nigeria. Explain right to fair hearing.   Types of Laws in… Read More »RIGHTS OF CITIZENS

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