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SS 2 Computer Studies/Information Technology (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Computer-Studies

INTERNET

The internet is a collection of interconnected computer network around the world that provides a wealth of information on nearly any topic you can imagine. The world Wide Web, often simply called the web, is a subsystem of the internet.  DEFINITION OF INTERNET The internet is a worldwide network of computers that share information. Information sharing and communication are the primary purpose for the internet.   SOME BASIC TERMS 1.        Browse: Term to describe a user’s movement across the web, moving from page to page via hyperlinks, using web browser. 2.        Browsers: An interface that enables you to manage information on the web. The browser speaks to the server to which you are connecting, grabs the web pages you want, and displays the files within the browser interface. Using the browser you can access a variety of websites 3.        Chat room: a chat room is a web site, or part… Read More »INTERNET

Computer-Studies

BASIC PROGRAMMING II

BASIC PROGRAMS FIND SUQARE ROOT OF NUMBERS 10 REM FIND SUQARE ROOT OF NUMBERS 20 INPUT “ENTER FIRST NUMBER OF RANGE”; A 30 INPUT “ENTER LAST NUMBER OF RANGE”; B 40 FOR I = A TO B 50 PRINT “THE SUARE ROOT OF “; A; “IS “;SQR(A) 60 NEXT A 70 END   FIND SQUARE ROOT OF S ROUNDED UP TO AN INTEGER 10 REM FIND SUQARE ROOT S 20 INPUT “ENTER NUMBER”; A 30 S = INT(SQR(A)) 40 PRINT “THE SQUARE ROOT OF S ROUNDED OFF “;A; “IS “; S 50 END   FIND THE COSINE OF KNOW VALUES 10 REM FIND TANGENT OF GIVEN ANGLE 20 INPUT “ENTER NUMBER”; A 30 S = TAN(A) 40 PRINT “THE TANGENT OF “;A; “IS “; S 50 END   PLOT SINE WAVE CURVE We can get the y position of sine wave at any of these 360 points by using the… Read More »BASIC PROGRAMMING II

Computer-Studies

BASIC PROGRAMMING

BASIC has a number of built in functions that greatly extend its capability. These functions perform such varied task as taking the square root of a number, counting the number of characters in a string, and capitalizing letters. Functions associate with one or more values, called input, a single value called output.   NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: SQR, INT SQR calculates the square root of a number. The function INT finds the greatest integer less than or equal to a number. Therefore INT discards the decimal parts of a number. Example: SQR(9) is 3 INT(2.7) is 2 The terms in the parentheses can be numbers (as above), variables, or expressions.   ABS FUNCTION Its full form is absolute. It is used to find the absolute value of a number. Absolute value of a number means the number without a sign. Examples: ABS(+3.4) = 3.4 ABS(- 3.4) = 3.4   RND FUNCTION RND… Read More »BASIC PROGRAMMING

Computer-Studies

ALGORITHM AND FLOW CHART

To make a computer do anything you have to write a computer program. To write a computer program you have to tell the computer, step by step exactly what you want it to do. An Algorithm can be defined as the set of rules and sequential steps that define how a particular problem can be solved in finite and ordered sequence. An Algorithm written in a computer is called a program. Simply speaking an Algorithm is called the heart of programing. An Algorithm describes a method by which a given task is accomplished.   A Flow Chart is the pictorial representation in which symbols are used to show the various operations and decisions to be followed in solving a problem.   FUNCTIONS OF ALGORITHMS An Algorithm generally takes some input, carries out a number of effective steps in a finite amount of time, and produces some output CHARACTERISTICS OF ALGORITM… Read More »ALGORITHM AND FLOW CHART

Computer-Studies

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT II

    Step 1: Program Specification   Program development can be divided into several stages which are shown in the diagram below   Step 2: Program Design Step 6: Program Maintenance Step 4: Program Test Step 3: Program Code Step 5: Program Documentation  1.       Problem Definition This stage is the formal definition of task. It includes the specification of inputs and outputs  processing requirements, system constraints( execution time, accuracy, response time), and error handling method   2.       Problem Analysis This step is the process of becoming familiar with the problem that will be solved with a computer program. The process ends when all the programmers’ questions have been resolved and requirement of the program are understood.   3.       Flowcharting Ones the overall problem has been identified, the next stage of software development is program design. The programmer must decide, prior to writing his program, exactly which steps should the computer… Read More »PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT II

Computer-Studies

Program Development

An organized list of instructions that, when executed, causes the computer to behave in a predetermined manner is called a program. There are many programming languages –C, C++, Pascal, BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, and LISP are just few. These are high level programing languages. We also have low level language called assembly languages and machine language.   Eventually, every program must be translated into machine language that the computer understands. This translation is done by a compiler, interpreters, and assembler. When you buy software, you normally buy an executable version of program. This means that the program is already in machine language i.e it has already been compiled and assembled and it’s ready to execute.   CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PROGRAM Accuracy: program should be sufficiently accurate to get the desired result Simplicity: program logic should be as simple and uncomplicated as possible Testability: place test points in the program Efficiency:… Read More »Program Development

Computer-Studies

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE II

        I.            Preliminary Study Is the first stage of system development life cycle. This is the brief investigation of the system under consideration and gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is. In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a ‘System Proposal’ which list the problem definition, objectives of study, Terms of reference for study etc.         II.            Feasibility Study In case the system proposal is acceptable to the management, the next phase is to examine the feasibility of the system. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user’s requirements, effective use of resources and of course, the cost effectiveness.       III.            Detailed System Study/ Investigative Study This involved detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationship s within and outside the system. Data are collected by… Read More »SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE II

Computer-Studies

System Development life Cycle

The System Development life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the process involved including the waterfall model (the original SDLC method), rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), and the fountain model and spiral model.   Description  A Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) has three primary objectives: ensure that high quality systems are delivered, provide strong management controls over the projects, and maximize the productivity of the systems staff. In order to meet these objectives the SDLC has many specific requirements it must meet, including being able to support projects and systems of various scopes and types, supporting all of the technical activities, supporting all management activities, being highly useable, and providing guidance on how… Read More »System Development life Cycle

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