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SS 2 Catering Craft Practices

catering craft practiceS


ENERGY Energy is defined as the ability to do work. It exists in different forms like: heat, light, sound, electrical, potentials (stored), kinetic etc. LAWS OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can be changed from one form to another. The total amount of energy before and after the change remains the same. This observation is stated in the law of conservation of energy which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another. There are types of energy such as chemical energy, heat energy, and light energy. HEAT CONTENT (ENTHALPY) OF A SUBSTANCE Heat content or Enthalpy of a substance is the characteristic internal energy possess by the substance, which is due to the structure and physical state of a substance. The potential energy is due to the structure while the kinetic energy is due to the physical state. Enthalpy of one… Read More »EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS

catering craft practiceS


MEANING OF RATE OF REACTION The rate of a chemical reaction is the number of moles of reactants converted or products formed per unit time.       Usually, rate of reaction is determined experimentally by measuring change in concentration of one of the components in the reaction with time. Thus, Rate of reaction = change in concentration of reactant or product (mol/dm3) Time taken for the change (seconds) The unit of the rate of reaction is mol/dm-3s-1 or g dm-3s –1. Rate of reaction can also be expressed as: Rate of reaction = change in number of mole or mass of reactant or product Time taken for the change Then the unit of rate is mols-1 or gs-1   EXAMPLE: When 0.5g of calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) was added to excess dilute hydrochloric acid, carbon (IV) oxide was evolved. The complete reaction took 5 minutes. What was the rate of reaction?… Read More »RATE OF REACTION | MEANING, WAYS, RATE CURVE, COLLISION THEORY & EFFECT

catering craft practiceS


Coffee is produced from the roasted beans of the coffee tree, and is grown and exported from regions such as South America, India, the Middle East, the West Indies named Sumatra. Brazil is the world largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second, the Ivory Coast is third and Indonesia fourth. THE RULES TO BE OBSERVED WHEN MAKING COFFEE IN BULK ARE AS FOLLOWS: Use freshly roasted and ground coffee. Buy the correct grind for the type of machine in use. Ensure all equipment is clean before use. Add boiling water to the coffee and allow to infuse. The infusion time must be controlled according to the type of coffee being used and the method of making. Control the temperature since to boil coffee is to spoil coffee (it will develop a bitter taste). Strain and serve. Offer milk(hot or cold) or cream separately and sugar and alternatives. EVALUATION What is… Read More »COFFEE MAKING SERVICE

catering craft practiceS

PLAT DUJOUR | Hausa Dishes, Igbo Dishes, Yoruba Dishes, FOREIGN DISHES & European Dishes

This is also known as a specialty menu.It can be a set priced menu or individually priced menu or individually priced dish specializing in the food of a particular country, religion or a specialized food itself. The specialty could be ethnic, i.e. food in the menu could reflect Chinese, Indian, Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Greek,Africa or specialty like diabetic, hypertensive etc.It is usually changed daily and cheaper or better. In Nigeria, different ethnic groups have their own traditional dishes/ meal. Examples are: Hausa Dishes Taushe da tu won shinkafa Karkashi da tuwonshinkafa Miyan wake da sakwara Miyanridi da brabisko Igbo Dishes Offeowerri Offeujuju Offeonugbu with fufu Uziza and utazi Yoruba Dishes Ewedu soup and amala Egusi soup with pounded yam Efoelegusi and eba Ikokore   EVALUATION Mention two Hausa dishes Mention two Igbo dishes   FOREIGN DISHES These are also called civilized dishes. These are dishes that are not naturally taken… Read More »PLAT DUJOUR | Hausa Dishes, Igbo Dishes, Yoruba Dishes, FOREIGN DISHES & European Dishes

catering craft practiceS


Carte du jour means menu of the day. It refers to a special menu offered to the guests that is different from those on the menu card. This menu combines the alacarte, table d’hote and plat du jour menu, each being priced according to type.This implies that the meals could be individually priced, i.e. ala carte menu;collectively priced and still be the special menu for the day.In other words a restaurant or eatery that operates this style is flexible and will satisfy customers with each of the various options.  EXAMPLE OF A LA CARTE MENU FOR LUNCH STARTER *Children stock soup with 2 slices of bread.                                                                          #650 *Mixed vegetable saladchopped lettuce, tomatoes, green pepper and cucumber. #550 *Green salad crispy lettuce and cucumber in vinaigrette dressing.                                      #750 MAIN COURSE *Roast fish served with chips/fried and seasoned vegetable.                                               #900 *Grilled chicken in chili, served with potatoes or butter rice.          … Read More »CARTE DUJOUR MENU

catering craft practiceS


LUNCH is the main meal of the day. It is taken in the afternoon as the midday meal. Lunch is wider in scope as it could include plate du jour, carte du jour, continental menu or local menu. The soup or protein is always served first. LUNCHEON is a midday meal, served as part of entertainment of guests in a gathering. It is an afternoon party where a light meal is served in connection with a meeting or other special occasion. For Special party in our localities the following dishes are generally acceptable: *Chicken jollof rice *Turkey fried rice *Beef coconut rice *Fish curried rice *Lamb braised rice *Varieties of swallow ranging from poundo, wheat meal, semovita,amala, eba ,tuwo and *Soups like vegetable,melon,ogbonor,ewedu.okro etc. Varieties allow the guests to make their preferences.   EVALUATION Differentiate between lunch and luncheon. List three different that can be served in a luncheon.  … Read More »LUNCHEON AND DINNER | FULL EXPLANATION

catering craft practiceS


Breakfast is the first and most important meal of the day used to break the night fast.It must not be omitted. It should be light, but substantial oily and heavy foods should be avoided.Breakfast should be able to sustain an individual until lunch. In catering establishments e.g. breakfast in hotels may be served in the hotel restaurant or dining room, or in a breakfast room set aside for this meal or in the hotel guest bedroom or suite. TYPES OF BREAKFAST CAFÉ COMPLET The term café complet is widely used in continental Europe and it means a continental breakfast with coffee as the beverage. The term ‘the complet’ is also used with tea provided as the beverage (teacomplet). CAFÉ SIMPLE OR THE SIMPLE Café simple or the simple is just a beverage (coffee or tea) with nothing to eat. Only the beverage served as breakfast.   EVALUATION Define breakfast. Mention… Read More »BREAKFAST SERVICE (CONTINENTAL & NIGERIAN)


A menu is a list of dishes served or available to be served at a meal. It can also be referred to as a selling aid. TYPES OF MENU A’LA CARTE (FROM THE CARD) A la carte means cook to order. It is a menu with all dishes individually priced. There are many dishes at different price for the customer to choose and compile their own menu which may be one, two or more courses. A true ala carte dish should be cooked to order and the customer should be prepared to wait. EXAMPLES OF ALACRATE MENU SAMPLE 1 STARTER *Children stock soup with 2 slices of bread                                                                           #650 *Mix vegetable salad, chopped lettuce, tomatoes, green pepper and cucumber                #550 *Green salad crispy lettuce and cucumber in vinaigrette dressing                                       #750   MAIN COURSE *Roast fish served with chips/fried and seasoned vegetable                                                #900 *Grilled chicken in chill, served… Read More »TYPES OF MENU | TYPES, EXAMPLES, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

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MENU PLANNING This is an act of deciding in advance the types of foods or dishes to be included in a meal. This is necessary when food has to be bought, prepared, and served in large quantities to people of varying tastes and requirements. Menu planning is important for meeting the nutritional requirements of family members or guests. Advantages of Menu Planning Menu planning helps to provide appetizing, nourishing and attractive meals to customers at a fair price. Menu planning ensures that food is not wasted because any left overs can be creatively incorporated in the next day’s menu which is already planned out. Planned menus help to identify dishes that did not sell well in the past and the favorite dishes of the customers. It saves time and effort spent on ordering, shopping and receiving of food materials. Well planned menu increases frequency of customers and attract new customers.… Read More »FACTORS THAT AFFECT MENU PLANNING | ADVANTAGES, FACTORS, REQUIREMENT & VEGETARIANISM

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ORIGIN OF MENU The menu is primarily a selling aid. Originally the bill of fare (English) or menu (French) was not presented at the table.  Banquets generally consisted of two courses.  Each made up of a variety of dishes, anything from 10-40 in numbers. The first set of dishes were placed on the table before the diners entered – hence the word entrée – and when consumed, these dishes were removed or relieved by another set of dishes – hence the words ‘relieves or removes’.   The word ‘menu’ dates back to the 18th century although the custom of making a list of the courses for a meal is much older. Modern menu first appeared during the early 19th century in the Parsan Restaurant of the Palais – Royas. Although, the actual number of courses on a menu and dishes within each course will depend on the size and class… Read More »MEANING AND SCOPE OF MENU | ORIGIN, FUNCTIONS, MEANING, SCOPE & CLASSIC SEQUENCE

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