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SS 1 Agricultural Science (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Agricultural Science

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

A crop is a plant which is cultivated by man for some beneficial purposes. Crops can be classified based on (i) life cycle (ii)morphology  (iii) uses. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LIFE CYCLE The life cycle of a crop is the period from planting of seed to maturity of the crop. Based on life cycle, crops can be grouped into three: – ANNUAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle within a year e. g. cotton, cowpea, yam, rice etc. BIENNIAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle within as year e. g. cassava, pepper, onions, carrot, ginger etc. PERENNIAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle in more than two years e. g. banana, orange, cocoa, coconut etc. EVALUATION QUESTIONS What is a crop? Classify crops based on life cycle.   CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MORPHOLOGY On… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (CROPAND ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION) CLIMATE: This is defined as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time.   FACTORS OF CLIMATE: It includes rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, light, wind, pressure. Each of the factors has its own influence on agriculture. This is shown by the distribution of vegetation and crops in the climatic zones. The result is that when the soil condition is favourable, thick evergreen forest develops.   1). RAINFALL: Is defined as the amount and distribution of water precipitation within a given time in a given area.   RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERN West Africa is known for its high temperature throughout the year. It is brought about by the south- west monsoon trade wind blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. The wind blowing from the ocean to the inland drops some water. A narrow part of the… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS

LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA Land ownership ranges from individual ownership to communal ownership. In the individual ownership system, land is held by the family who can farm on it, build on it, pledge it for money or sell it. In communal ownership system, the land belongs to the community which may be an extended family, a village or a town and no member of the community can use the land against the wishes of the rulers of the community. Only annual crops can be planted on this piece of land. LAND TENURE SYSTEM Land tenure is defined as the system of land ownership or acquisition either by individual, family, and community or government agency either for temporary or permanent use.It is also the body of right and relationship established among men to control and use land. TYPES OF LAND TENURE SYSTEM COMMUNAL LAND TENURE: This is a traditional ownership… Read More »AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS

Agricultural Science

LAND AND ITS USES

LAND Land is man’s natural endowment (the gift of nature). It is the solid part of earth’s surface (the soil and its mineral resources) where production like farming and livestock management takes place. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND It is fixed in supply and its value rise steadily in response to increasing demand for it. The supply of land is limited and cannot be easily increased. Land is mobile i.e. cannot be moved from a place of plenty to a place of scarcity. EVALUATION QUESTIONS What is a land? Mention three characteristics of land   USES OF LAND Land use is sub-divided into agricultural and non-agricultural uses. AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND Crop Production: – Land is used for the production of food crops such as yam cassava rice etc and cash crops such as cocoa, kola nut, coffee etc. Grazing: – Large areas of land set aside where there are abundant… Read More »LAND AND ITS USES

Agricultural Science

AGRO-ALLIED IDUSTRIES

MEANING OF AGRO-ALLIED INDUSRIES Agro-allied industries/Agro-based industries are industries which depend on agriculture for their raw materials in order to operate successfully. In other words, agro-based industries require the supply of agricultural raw materials in order to provide some finished products that are essential for human and animal consumption.   EXAMPLES OF AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES AND RAW MATERIALS USED The table below shows the examplesof agro-allied industries and the raw materials used in each industry: S/N Agro-based Industries Raw Materials Used 1. Oil mill Oil seeds 2. Soap industries Oil seeds/oil 3. Cigarette/Tobacco Tobacco leaves 4. Textile/Ginnery Cotton 5. Breweries Cereals 6. Fruit canning Fruits 7. Paper industry Pulpwood 8. Sugar industry Sugar cane 9. Plywood/saw mill Wood 10. Flour mill Cereal/grains 11. Starch Cassava, maize 12. Tyre Rubber latex 13. Feed mill Groundnut, maize, etc 14. Beverage Cocoa, coffee, tea EVALUATION QUESTIONS What are Agro-based industries? State ten examples of… Read More »AGRO-ALLIED IDUSTRIES

Agricultural Science

ROLES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Science and Technology has played significant roles in the development of agriculture in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. These roles include Modern farm machinery: – The development of modern farm implement such as tractor, plough, planter, harvester, sheller to replace old simple tools such As hoe and cutlass has been made possible by science and technology. This has greatly increase productivity (commercial farming) and farm work becomes easier, faster and attractive. Agro-climatology: – Science has been able to explain the ideal climatic conditions for plants and animals. Farmers are equally helped to understand the weather and climate of their area and are able to determine the type of crops to grow and animals to rear. Pests and disease control: – Chemicals inform of pesticides, fungicides, nematicides, fumigants has been developed by science and technology to combat the problems caused by pests and disease. Crops and animals improvement:… Read More »ROLES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Agricultural Science

THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Agricultural activities are controlled or directed in one way or the other by government through their ministries of agriculture. They draw up policies and programmes, they make regulations for those concerned with agricultural development, they grant loans or credit facilities and subsidy, finance research, establish farm settlements and supply vaccine and quarantine services.   Establishment of Agricultural Policies: Every country has its own agricultural policies. Such policies in any underdeveloped economy may have the same goals which are summarized below: To increase the production of suitable food crops. To meet the needs and changing taste of the growing population. To increase the quality and efficiency of producing the major export crops as demanded by the world market. To provide employment opportunities through establishment of large farms. To supply the essential raw materials which are vital to the development of local industries. To increase the… Read More »THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Agricultural Science

PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AND THEIR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

Inadequate Land / Land Tenure System There is problem of enough agricultural land production as a result of situation arising from the system of land. Land is communally owned in Nigeria and no person can lay sole right over the land. People who have capital find it difficult to obtain land for investment. SOLUTION (i) Reviewing and enforcing the land use act of 1978. (ii) Abandoned land should be put to use   Inadequate Provision of Basic/Social Amenities Inadequate provision of amenities like electricity, pipe borne water, health care, school, etc. in rural area are part of the problem hindering agricultural development in Nigeria. SOLUTION (i) The government should provide basic social amenities such as electricity medical                               centres, schools e. t. c. in rural areas. (ii) People should join hands together to engage in community development.   Poor Financial Status of The Farmers Farmers find it difficult to invest considerable… Read More »PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AND THEIR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

Agricultural Science

TYPES OF AGRICULTURE:SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE Subsistence agriculture is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food (cultivation of crops and rearing of animals) by the farmer to feed himself and his family only. It is also known as peasant farming because it is practiced by poor farmers. It is done on a small scale and involves the use of crude tools (e.g. cutlass, hoe, axe, etc.) only.   COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE Commercial agriculture is the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food and cash crops in large quantities for sale.It is done on a large scale because commercial farmers are rich farmers. Complex farm machines like tractors, bulldozers, planters, harvesters, etcare used. EVALUATION QUESTIONS Define the two types of agriculture. Who is a peasant farmer? State ten examples of simple farm tools used by subsistence farmers. State ten examples of complex farm machines used… Read More »TYPES OF AGRICULTURE:SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

Agricultural Science

INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE: MEANING, BRANCHES AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

MEANING OF AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the art and science (or management) that deals with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals for man’s use. This means, it refers to all the activities involving cultivation of soil for the production of crops and livestock management to the distribution and marketing of the plant and animal products.   The term, agriculture, is derived from two Latin words which are: “Ager” which means field/farm/land. “Culture” which means cultivation. By this, agriculture means field cultivation. However, this is not a complete definition of agriculture since agriculture also has to do withanimal production. EVALUATION QUESTION Define Agriculture. State the two Latin words from which the term Agriculture is derived from and their meanings.   BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE The branches of Agricultureinclude the following: 1.Animal Science/Animal Husbandry/Animal Production: Animal Science ensures the efficient and effective management of farm animals. It ensures better animal productivity.… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE: MEANING, BRANCHES AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

Agricultural Science

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF RUMINANT [CATTLE] Cattle Breeds of cattle Terms used in cattle management Characteristics of cattle System of rearing cattle Feeding of cattle Management of cattle   Cattle are ruminant animal (they have complex or complicated stomach structures). Cattle have hollow horns and hoofs. They are reared for meat, milk, hide and skin, manure and draught animals for farm work. They belong to the family bovidae and genus Bos; humped cattle are Bosindicushumpless are Bostaurus.   BREEDS OF CATTLE Breeds of cattle can be grouped into three. These are Beef cattle: They can produce good quality meat SokotoGudali,  Red Bororo, Kuri, N’dama, Muturu, Keteku etc. Dairy cattle: They are reared mainly to produce milk. White Fulani, Jersey, Ayshere, etc. Dual purpose cattle: They can produce meat and milk Muturu, Wadara (Shuwa) etc.   TERMS USED IN CATTLE MANAGEMENT Bull: an adult male cattle             Cow: an adult female cattle Calf: a… Read More »LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

Agricultural Science

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF A MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL (PIGS) Terms used in pigs management Breeds of pigs Characteristics of pigs System of rearing pigs Housing, feeding and hygiene Management of pigs Pigs are non-ruminant animals in the genus sus, within even-toed ungulate family suidae. They are primarily reared for meat.   TERMS USED IN PIGS MANAGEMENT Boar: a mature male pig                          Sow: a mature female pig Piglet: young or baby pig farrowed          Barrow: a castrated male pig Pork: pig’s meat                                        In-sow: pregnant sow Dry sow: a sow that is not pregnant         Fatheners: pigs reared for meat Farrowing: act of parturition in pigs        Lard: pig fat Gilt: mature female pig that has not reproduced or has only reproduced once   BREEDS OF PIGS Hampshire                        Yorkshire (Largewhite)           Poland china               Landrace Berkshire               Large black                             West African dwarf     Duroc   CHARACTERISTICS OF PIGS Pork is a good source of protein It has a short gestation period… Read More »LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Environmental physiology refers to the effects of the environment on the growth and performance of farm animals. It is the study of the environment in relation to the response of farm animals. The effects could be high or low in nature. Moderation is the target for optimum growth and performance.   CLIMATE Climate refers to the atmospheric condition of a place over a period of time. It is marked by rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, sunlight etc.   RAINFALL High rainfall increases pests like tsetse flies, and diseases High rainfall causes chilling of young ones High rainfall does favor rearing of dairy animals Extremes of rainfall do not favor growth of grasses for foods   CONTROL OF RAINFALL Shelter Rain break Drainage channels Building orientation   WIND Wind aids the spread of air-borne diseases e.g. tuberculosis; and death eventually Moderate wind velocity promotes good ventilation. Scare animals producing undesirable level of… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Agricultural Science

REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

PROCESSES OF EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY The egg in poultry is partly formed in the ovary and in the oviduct. At ovulation the ovum carrying the yolk is released by the ovary into the oviduct through the funnel called infundibulum. Fertilization takes place in the infundibulum where the egg spends 15 minutes and moves into the magnum. In the magnum, part of the egg white (albumen) and the chalaza are secreted round the yolk. The egg stays for 3 hours in the magnum and moves into the isthmus where the two shell membranes are formed. The egg stays for 1 hour 15 minutes in the isthmus and moves into the uterus where it remains for 18 – 21 hours and the egg shell is formed from calcium carbonate. Mineral solutions are also added to the egg before it moves into the vagina whereit remains for 1 – 15 minutes before… Read More »REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

Agricultural Science

REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

Reproduction is the process that gives rise to young in farm animals; it is the ability of animals to birth young. This process starts when the animal is sexually matured. Time of sexual maturity varies between animals, in cattle it takes up to 15 months, in goat and sheep about 6 months, poultry about 18 weeks etc. The following terms are associated with reproduction in farm animals.   OESTRUS CYCLE This is the interval from the end of one heat period to the beginning of another. It is under the influence of hormone called oestrogen.It is the sexual cycle that occurs in all female animals if the animal is not pregnant. The period varies among farm animals: Cow – 20 – 21 days Ewe – 17 – 21 days Sow – 14 – 28 days Doe (goat) – 17 – 21 days Doe (rabbit) – spontaneous   OVULATION This is… Read More »REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

Agricultural Science

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Respiratory system includes all the organs and tissues associated with the exchange of gases between the animal and its environment, leading to the release of energy. The purpose of respiration is to supply oxygen to the cell which burns down food to release energy. C6H12O6            +          6O2                  à        6CO2                +          6H2O    +          ENERGY (Glucose)                                  (Oxygen)                         (Carbon dioxide)                                       (Water)                       (ATP) TYPES OF RESPIRATION Aerobic respiration: This is the type of respiration that takes place in the presence of oxygen. C6 H12 O6     +          6O2                  à        6CO2                +          6H2O    +            ENERGY           (Glucose)                                    (Oxygen)                         (Carbon dioxide)                                             (Water)  (ATP) Anaerobic respiration – This is the type of respiration that takes place in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic respiration is also known as fermentation. C6H12O6                       à        2C2H5OH                      +         2CO2                +          ENERGY                         (Glucose)                                                         (Alcohol)                                                             (Carbon dioxide)                                                           (ATP)   RESPIRATORY… Read More »RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Agricultural Science

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Digestive system and digestion Digestion in ruminant (polygastric) animals Digestion in non-ruminant (monogastric) animals Digestion in poultry birds Differences between monogastric and polygastric animals.   DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND DIGESTION The digestive system of farm animals includes all the organs and tissues associated with the breaking down or digestion of food in the body. It includes the teeth or beak, tongue, the alimentary canal or digestive tract and all the associated gland secreting enzymes and other body fluids.   Digestion is the breakdown of foods substances in the digestive tract into absorbable forms. This process starts from the mouth through mastication which increases the surface area and allows microbes to have quicker access to act the food substances. Farm animals are grouped into two main classes based on the nature of the alimentary canal or digestive tract. There are polygastric (ruminant) animals and monogastric (non – ruminant) animals.  … Read More »ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS

Agricultural Science

FARM MECHANIZATION

FARM MECHANIZATION (TRACTORIZATION) Mechanization refers to the application of engineering principles and technology in agricultural production. It is the use of machines such as tractors, ploughs, harvesters, harrow, planter etc as well as the use of farm inputs such as insecticides, improved seeds, fertilizer etc.   The objective of mechanization is to: reduce human labour (that is to reduce drudgery) increase efficiency save cost (on the long run) save time improve standard of living by improving quality and quantity of produce available.   ADVANTAGES OF FARM MECHANIZATION It ensures that farm operations are done and completed within a shortest possible time It saves labour that could otherwise be useful elsewhere. It reduces health hazards and accidents that can occur from using tools. It reduces drudgery. It encourages large scale farming hence increasing output. It promotes specialization of labour for example machines operators become specialists in the machines they handle. It… Read More »FARM MECHANIZATION

Agricultural Science

FARM POWER

DEFINITION OF FARM POWER Power is the rate of doing work or the expenditure of energy. Power is measured in units of joule/seconds otherwise known as watts. Farm power is the ability provided by various sources to carry on farm work. Farm power then can be defined as the energy, force and source used to carry out farming operations.   SOURCES OF FARM POWER HUMAN POWER This is the most important source of farm power without which all other sources are useless. It involves the use of man’s intellect and/manual effort to carry out different farming activities. The great advantage of human power is man’s intelligence which means he is able to control the work he does.    ADVANTAGES OF HUMAN POWER Man’s intelligence to control the work he does. Man has the advantage to control all other sources of power It is required in all farm operations It is… Read More »FARM POWER

Agricultural Science

SIMPLE FARM TOOLS

Farm tools are simple handy tools constructed by the farmer or local crafts men to carry out some basic farming operations. Farmers who grow crops and keep animals usually use some simple tools to help make their work easier and faster. EXAMPLES OF FARM TOOLS 1. Cutlass 2. Hoe 3. Bolt and nut 4. Shovel 5. Garden fork 6. Hand fork 7. Axe 8. Screw driver 9. Digger 10. Head pan 11. Spanner 12. Mallet 13. Budding knife 14. Plier 15. Harvesting knife 16. Crowbar 17. Sickle 18. Wheel barrow 19. Shear 20. Emasculator 21. Mattock 22. Hammer 23. Watering can 24. Chisel 25. Pruning saw 26. Secateurs 27. Rake 28. Hand trowel 29. Spade 30. Manure drag   PRACTICAL/PROJECT: GET A DRAWING BOOK TO DRAW ALL 30 OF THE HIGHLIGHTED FARM TOOLS, WRITE A SHORT NOTE TO DESCRIBE THEM, STATE WAY(S) OF MAINTAINING THEM AND STATE THEIR USE(S).  … Read More »SIMPLE FARM TOOLS

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