PURPOSES OF THE AGENCIES OF U.N.O
- To reduce international conflicts: The establishment of this agencies has helped to a very large extend in reducing international conflicts to the barest minimum.
- International interests: Another purpose for setting up these agencies is to integrate the interest of the various nations.
- To promote World peace: The establishment of these special agencies is to bring about World peace through the sharing of common interest by these agencies.
- To bring nations together: These agencies were set up with the believe that it would go beyond national boundaries and harmonizes interest of diverse nature.
- Creation of a World community: These agencies have the purpose of bringing the World together to become a World community devoid of war and conflicts.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF U.N.O
- Contribution to International Security: The U.N. has so far succeeded in averting war at World wide dimension. Although war has not been completely prevented, the U.N. has helped in reducing tension and conflict e.g Libya and Chad. The case between Nigeria and Cameroon was settled in favour of Cameroon.
- Prevention of another World war: One of the achievements of the U.NO. is that the organization since its establishment after the Second World war, has prevented the outbreak of a third World war. For example the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq was quickly contained by the major powers by collectively expelling Iraq from Kuwait.
- Peace-keeping operations: The U.N. has contributed greatly to the peace process in different countries and regions through peace keeping exercises e.g. Yugoslavia, Somalia, Lebanon, etc.
- Promotion of Fundamental Human Rights: The U.N. has played a commendable role in promoting respect from human rights and dignity.
- Achievement of Independence: The Trusteeship Council has helped in this respect by assisting some territories that have not gained independence to do so. For example, Namibia got her independence through the efforts of the U.N.O.
- Promotion of cooperation among countries on regional bsis as a way of ensuring regional development. U.N. made provision for financial assistance to the regional organizations like, European Union (E.U.), O.A.U etc.
- Settlement of refugees: The U.N plays a key role in providing shelter, food and medicine for displaced people in different parts of the World e.g Africa.
- Promotion of development programmes: Through its specialized agencies, the U.N.O provides economic assistance to less developed countries. Also, educational, health, cultural and aids to its member states especially developing countries.
- ARMS limitation: The U.N. encourages arms reduction through its non-proliferation treaties between the two super powers –USSR and USA.
- Condemnation of Apartheid: The U.N.O has helped in no small measure in the fight against apartheid policy. For example the U.N.O. fight against apartheid in South Africa, is a case in point.
- Increase in standard of living: The material aids like food, medicine, etc, given to developing countries by U.N.O.’s specialized agencies like W.H.O, UNICEF, etc have helped to raise the standard of living in the developing nations.
- Highlight five principles of the Specialized Agencies of the U.N.O.
- Outline five achievements of the U.N.O.
PROBLEMS OF THE U.N.O
- Shortage of Fund: The ability of the U.N. to carry out its functions effectively partly rests on availability of funds. The U.N. is handicapped by lack of adequate finance. Some member states default in payment of contribution.
- Veto Power: The exercise of veto power by the five permanent members of the Security Council has rendered the Security Council in particular and U.N. in general impotent. This is a threat to World peace and security because of the selfish interest for which the veto power is used.
- Difference in Ideology: The ideology of member states in areas like culture, politics And methods used in pursuing economic goals differs. There is also ideological rivalry between the communist East and Capitalist West, which has affected the aims and objectives of the U.N.O.
- Peace Keeping: The U.N. since its existence has not being able to live up to expectation in the area of peace keeping, just like the League of Nations it replaced. The U.N.O. suffer from lack of unanimous acceptance by the factions involved in war in some member countries meant to be mediated by U.N. peace-keepers.
- Poor World Economic Condition: One of the concerns of the U.N. is improving the living standards of the people. The World is currently witnessing deteriorating living conditions in many areas.
- Problem Posed by Big Powers: The U.N. has proved helpless in cases of aggression involving the major powers. The so called big powers seem to be above the U.N. to the extent that the organization cannot control them. For example, American aggression in Vietnam and Soviet attack on Afghanistan.
- Language Barrier: Language is a major problem to U.N. as speeches in the General Assembly are interpreted into the at least five major languages.
- Suspicion Among Member States: Some activities of the U.N. are sometimes negatively affected by the suspicion among member states. For instance, Iraq strongly believe that the U.N. inspection team was a spying agent of the United States of America and as such refused to co-operate with them.
- Non-implementation of Resolutions: The U.N. has not been able to implement its resolutions. They are passed all the time by the organization especially on South Africa but their implementation has suffered a major set back.
- Inability to end Colonialism: The U.N was unable to end colonialism in Africa as it was unable to force South Africa to hands off Namibia. Also, countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, Angola etc, gained their independence through arms struggle executed by their nationalist rather than through U.N.O.
- Problems of Arms Race: The U.N. has failed to find a lasting solution to arms proliferation. Many nations of the World like U.S.A, Britain, France, etc are spending money in manufacturing weapons of war. For example, the U.N. has failed to stop Iraq’s arm’s build up.
- Why is the U.N. financially handicapped?
- Explain how the exercise of veto power affects U.N.O.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Account for the cause of the Kano riot of 1953
- Account for the cause of the Census Crisis of 1962/63
- What were the important provisions made by the Lyttleton constitution?
- Mention the 5 merits of the Lyttleton constitution
Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 257-259
- Which of the following is not a specialized agency of the U.N.O? (a) The Food and Agricultural Organization (b) The General Assembly (c) World Health Organization
- The organ of U.N.O which can impose mandatory sanctions on any of its members is the (a) Security Council (b) General Assembly (c) The Secretariat
- Which of the following countries is a permanent member of the Security Council of the U.N? (a) Italy (b) Korea (c) China
- All the following are problems of U.N. except (a) settlements of refugees (b) language barrier (c) shortage of fund
- W.H.O. was established in____ (a) 1956 (b) 1948 (c) 1947
- State 5 problems confronting U.N.O.
- Briefly explain some of the achievements of U.N.O.
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