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Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

MEN AND WOMEN

Similarities between men and women Men and women are created by God to perform certain tasks and duties on earth. However, in every society and culture, men and women have various roles to play, as determined by nature. Men and women are similar in the following ways: 1 They are both human beings. 2 They both have the ability to think and make meaningful decisions. 3 In this modern world, men and women have the potential to reach any height in politics, academics, religion, and other fields of endeavor.   Men and women are, however, different in some ways. The following are some of the ways in which men are different from women: 1 Men usually have stronger muscles than women. 2 Men have deep voices while most women have soft voices. 3 Men grow beards and moustaches while most women do not.   Traditional roles of men and women… Read More »MEN AND WOMEN

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

MECHANISED FARMING

Meaning of mechanized agriculture In the olden days, our people farmed with only cutlasses, sickles and hoes. They used small fishes as a bait to catch fishes in small rivers and lakes around them. The food they produced was, therefore, small and not enough to sell to other people.   This type of farming is called subsistence farming. Today, the government of Nigeria is interested in agriculture. Each state government has a ministry of agriculture. Some state governments have departments of fishery. In order to produce plenty of food, the government and some wealthy citizens use machines on their farms. The use of machines for farming is called mechanized farming.   On such farms, machines are used for clearing and weeding, and for planting crops and harvesting. These machines make the work of agriculture much easier and faster   Types of agricultural machines and their uses 1 Tractor: A tractor… Read More »MECHANISED FARMING

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

NATURAL DISASTER

Meaning of natural and man-made disasters A disaster is a sad event that happens suddenly. People often lose their lives and property in disasters. A disaster can come from nature, or by accident. Natural disasters are caused by nature. They are not caused by man’s Carelessness. Examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, floods, tornadoes and Windstorms. Erosion of the soil sometimes causes disasters in an area. Each of these disasters causes a lot of damage to the land, buildings, animals and people.   Man-made disasters are usually due to man’s mistake or carelessness. Examples of man-made disasters are the crashing of airplanes, sinking of ships, derailment of trains, or collapse of big buildings in which many people live. Fire disasters and car accidents in which many people are killed are also man-made disasters   Types and causes of natural disasters Natural disasters are of different kinds. They are, therefore, caused… Read More »NATURAL DISASTER

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

MEANING OF POLLUTION

Pollution is a situation in which something is dangerously dirty and no longer safe for use. TYPES OF POLLUTION Air pollution Water pollution Land pollution Noise pollution   AIR AND LAND POLLUTION Air pollution is when the air is no longer pure for people to breathe. This can be due to smoke from vehicles and factories, as well as harmful chemicals in the air. In land pollution, the ground is no longer safe for farming and other purposes.   When land is polluted, it may be unsafe to dig a well there, because the water maybe polluted. This often happens where things, such as crude oil, petrol and some chemicals spill on the ground. Such soil is no longer good for farming and other user   Ways by which air and land are polluted Pollution involves conditions which are harmful to man, animals and plants. Air is polluted in the… Read More »MEANING OF POLLUTION

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Causes of drug abuse

When drugs are wrongly taken by a person, they are said to have been and can become harmful. Drugs must only be taken under proper guidance and advice; otherwise, they can be abused. Someone who cannot do without a particular drug is called a drug addict such a person is said to be into drug addiction. A drug addict is likely to perform poorly at school or work.  Factors contributing to drug abuse Ignorance, or illiteracy Peer pressure, Cantonment Inability to resist the Temptation Pride Effects of abuse of stimulation Restlessness, Sleeplessness Mental disorder Loss of appetite Convulsion Withdraw dependence, socio Economic effects, Poor work performance, Debts, .Stealing, frauds, armed robbery, social outcast 10 School dropouts Sources of drugs Small scale sources: Hawkers, Herbalists, Provision sellers, snacks stores, Pharmacists   Manufacturers Barons, beer parlors keepers, hotel clubs, large scale sources.. Prevention of drug abuse and life coping skills How do… Read More »Causes of drug abuse

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Child development refers to the changes that take place in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence. The major stages of child development Infancy The child is between one month and about two years. Early childhoods: The child is between two and six years. Childhood proper: The child has started school. This stage lasts till the child is about ten years old. Adolescence : The child is becoming an adult. This stage begins at about eleven years and ends at twenty years   Characteristics of children of ten years and above At about ten years old, a child starts developing a new way of life, and he starts behaving more like an adult. The child’s body grows in special ways: 1 .Height : Growth rate increases in children as from ten years of age. At this stage, boys and girls grow almost at the same rate. In some… Read More »STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND HOUSES

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND AVAILABLE NUMBER OF HOUSES Relationship between population and available number of houses. Population is the number of people who live in a particular area. When the population of a particular area increases from what it used to be, then there will be the need to provide more amenities, such as electricity, water, schools, wide roads, and houses. Definitely, if the number of people residing in a particular area increases, there will be the need to provide more houses, because the ones available will not be adequate.   Why everybody does not own a house There are several reasons why people do not have houses of their own. Some of those reasons are as follows: 1 The cost of building materials is too high. 2 The cost of land is very high in the towns. More houses are needed in towns than in villages, but the price… Read More »RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND HOUSES

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

TYPES OF HOUSE

People live in different types of houses. The following are some of them. The mud house: This has mud walls and a mud roof. The roof is usually flat. The entrance to the house is usually small. It is the traditional type of house in the northern part of Nigeria, where rainfall is not much. 2 The thatched house: This is usually round and built in groups in a compound. The walls are built with grass. The roof is also made of grass. This is the traditional type of house of the Fulani people 3 The pointed-top house: This is common in the eastern part of Nigeria. The roof is made of raffia palms or grass, and the walls are built with mud and sticks. The storey building: A storey building is a house with more than one floor. It usually contains more than one flat. The first floor in… Read More »TYPES OF HOUSE

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Religion

Religion is what people believe and worship. It is a belief about the existence of God and human behaviour. There are three main religions in Nigeria. These are: Christianity, Islam and Traditional Religion.   Names we call God in Nigeria Ethnics groups Names the people call God (i) Yoruba – Olodumare (ii) Hausa – Ubangi (iii) Igbo – Chukwu (iv) Efik – Abasi (v) Edo – Osanobua   Objects of Worship Holy Bible Rosary Holy Qur’an Cross Cowries Charms   Things Religion Teaches Us Religion teaches us good morals. Some other things it teaches us are: Honesty Patience Tolerance Faith in God Being good Love for one another.   Exercises Identify the Holy Bible from the pictures in this module. Who are the people using the Tesbar for worship? Name the three main religions in Nigeria. Who is the head of the Islamic religion? Who are the people using Bible… Read More »Religion

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Culture

Culture is a way of life of a people. It includes our dressing, greetings, traditional ceremonies and festivals, religion, foods, etc.   Types of Culture There are two types of culture. They are: non-material culture and material culture. Non-material Culture: These are parts of our culture that cannot be seen but are accepted as our ways of life. They are religion, language, music, dancing, dressing, eating, etc. Material Culture: These are the things we use. They form parts of our art and industry   Things Culture does not Allow People to Do Culture does not encourage people to: Steal Lie Cheat Be lazy Fight Be greedy   Some Shared Cultures There are some parts or elements of, our culture that are common to some other cultures. These are called shared cultures because they are common to all cultures. Examples are: (i) Respect for elders (ii) Religion (iii) Food (iv) Leadership… Read More »Culture

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Types of Family

There are two types of family. These are: (i) Nuclear family (ii) Extended Family   Nuclear Family A nuclear family consists of father, mother and their children   Extended Family Members of an extended family are: (i) Grandfather (ii) Grandmother (iii) Father (iv) Mother (v) Brothers (vi)  Sisters (vii) The brothers of our father and mother are called uncles. (viii) The sisters of our father and mother are called aunts. (ix) The children of our uncles and aunties are called cousins.   Exercises Who are the people in the picture? Mention five things about the people in the picture. Mention the two types of family that you know. What type of family consists of father, mother and their children? What is the name of your uncle?   Activities Tell the class the names of your aunts and uncles. Find out from home members of your extended family.   Qualities of… Read More »Types of Family

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Family

Concept of a Family A family consists of father, mother and children. Members of a Typical Family Father He is the head of the family. He provides for the family Mother She is the wife to the father. She takes care of the children at home. Children The male and female children are members of the family. Exercise Touch a boy in the picture. Touch a girl in the picture. Who is the head of the family? Touch the mother in the pictures in this module. Mention the number of boys in your family. Mention the number of girls in your family. Activities State the name of your father. State name of your mother. Ask your friends how many boys and girls they have in their families. Are you a boy or a girl?   See also Patriotism National symbol Citizenship National Anthem National Identity

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Patriotism as a National Identify

What is patriotism? Patriotism means loving your country and being willing to defend it against its enemies whenever there is the need. Why should we be patriotic? To promote the development of the country: We must show our love for our country by doing all we can to make it å better place. For example, å patriotic child should not throw litter on the road, as this wills make our country dirty and ugly. This litter could eventually block the drains and cause flooding. To promote unity: By agreeing to work together as brother and sisters, we promote unity in our country. For example people from different ethnic groups and of different religions should see themselves first as Nigerians. To help our country benefit from our knowledge and skills we should use our knowledge and skills to improve our country. To ensure that the resources of the country are fully… Read More »Patriotism as a National Identify

National symbol as a national identify

Meaning of national symbols National symbols are things which represent å country. The symbols usually have certain characteristics which are recognized as representing something of importance in the country. Symbols can be people, leaders or public property. Nigerian national symbols Nigeria has å number of symbols through which people can easily identify Nigeria, Nigerians and matters that have to do with Nigeria. These include the following symbols: The national flag å) The green stands for the rich agricultural soil of Nigeria. b) The white stands for peace and unity The coat of arms is another national symbol which stands for power and authority. å) The black shield stands for the good soil of Nigeria. b) The two horses stand for dignity and pride of Nigeria. c) The mark which looks like the letter Y, stands for the two major rivers in Nigeria: River Niger and River Benue. d) The eagle… Read More »National symbol as a national identify

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Citizenship

Meaning of citizenship The citizens feel special about their nation. They enjoy certain rights and are expected to do certain things for their country the state of being a member of a particular country and having rights because of it:   Citizenship as means of national identify Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. The idea of citizenship has been defined as the capacity of individuals to defend their rights in front of the governmental authority.   Individual states and nations recognize citizenship of persons according to their own policies, regulations and criteria as to who is entitled to its citizenship. A person may have multiple citizenships. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose… Read More »Citizenship

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

National Anthem

NATIONAL ANTHEM AS A NATIONAL IDENTIFY What Is a National Anthem? A national anthem is a patriotic song or musical composition that is either recognized officially by a nation’s government and constitution or is accepted as such by convention through popular use. The national anthem reflects the history, struggles, and traditions of a nation and its people and serves as an expression of national identity.   The national anthem, like other national symbols of a country, represents the tradition, history, and beliefs of a nation and its people. Hence, it helps evoke feelings of patriotism among the country’s citizens and reminds them of their nation’s glory, beauty, and rich heritage. It also helps unite the citizens of the country by one single song or music.   During the performance of the national anthem, citizens of a nation, despite their ethnic differences, rise up in unison and listen attentively or sing… Read More »National Anthem

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

National Identity

Meaning of National Identity National identity is a person’s identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. It is the sense of “a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language.” National identity may refer to the subjective feeling one share with a group of people about a nation, regardless of one’s legal citizenship status. National identity can be referred to as the symbols, actions and behaviour, beliefs, languages and feelings that make people from one country different from people from other countries. It also means accepting and belonging to å country by taking part in its activities, and obeying the rules and regulations of that country. The National flag Elements of National identity There are certain things that make it possible for people to identify themselves as members of one country or another. These include the following National anthem: This… Read More »National Identity

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Agricultural Technology

Meaning of technology This is cultivation of land and rearing of animals and birds. While technology is a science applied to practical. We have two ways of land cultivation. Traditional ways And modern ways Traditional ways of land cultivation, fish farming and keeping of animals and birds. In this way of farming most people use very Simple farming implements like matchet, hoes, Also people fish in rivers with nets and hooks.   Traditional people keep fowls and goats in their houses. The Fulani move about with their castles. Modern methods of land cultivation fish farming and keeping of animals and birds. – Machines like tractors, harvesters are used. – Farmers now apply fertilizer. Birds and other Animals are kept in population and feed with feeds – Fishing is done with trawlers; fish ponds are also used   See also Pollution Prevention of drug abuse Characteristics of drug abusers Effect of… Read More »Agricultural Technology

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Pollution

Meaning of pollution Pollution is anything that makes our water, land, air and environment dirty and unsafe for human use. For example, a heap of rubbish is a type of pollution. A dead animal lying on the road causes pollution. Polythene bags, orange peels and remnants of food items pollute the surroundings. Types of pollution common in our locality 1 Water pollution: Water pollution takes place when dirty materials are dumped into streams, ponds, lakes, rivers and other bodies of water. Some people urinate and excrete into streams. This makes water from the streams unfit for drinking. Wells which are not covered can have various germs getting into them, thus making them dangerous. Some people spray chemicals into water while fishing. This pollutes the water and kills the fish. Fish caught by this method are unfit for eating. By-products or waste from factories sometimes flow into streams and rivers and… Read More »Pollution

Social Studies (Primary Classes)

Prevention of drug abuse

Drug abuse as the act of handling or using drugs wrongly. There are many ways of preventing drug abuse. One of the ways is by engaging in behaviours that promote our physical, mental and social well-being. A state of physical well-being is a good or satisfactory condition of life that is full of good health, happiness and prosperity. It also means that someone is healthy, physically strong and free from feeling weak. Mental well-being on the other hand is a state in which an individual realizes that his or her own abilities can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and are able to contribute to the development of his or her community.   Mental well-being involves being happy, being content with what you have, having self-esteem, self-confidence and having good relationship with people around you. Social well-being is the ability to easily get along with other people.… Read More »Prevention of drug abuse

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