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Literature in English

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Oliver goldsmith is an Irishman that was born to rev. goldsmith in 1728 at pallas. The goldsmiths appeared not interested to worldly matters. He lives in solitude. Some cherished staying with adults sometimes. He hated some of the characters of his teachers. Hence thy did not inspire him. His teachers regarded him as a dull boy who looked ugly.

He attended country Langford school at edge worth’s town(1741-1745). He develops interest in reading Latin poems and history. He later attended Trinity University at Dublin. He waited on fellow but wealthier students to do menial jobs for them. He used the money he receives to pay his school fees and took care of himself. He became elected to medical society in January 1753. He recklessly squandered his money. He graduated and obtained degree in medicine practice as a physician in 1753. He travelled wide and also became interested in literary work. He became known more in the library circle than in the field of medicine.

He works include: the vicar of Wakefield, The citizen of the world, an inquiry into the present state of policy learning, stated the Bee, The Mistakes of the Night, The Biography

Of Lord Bolingbroke, the Life of Dr.Panel Memoir’s of M.de. Voltair. The Life of Richard Nash Esq.

His poems include the Traveller, the deserted village, the hermit, a balad, the hunch of venison, a poetical epistle to lord clave’s relation, a poem, the captivity etc.

Gold smith wroteextensively. These are his other works (i) Beauties of English poetry (ii) compendium of Biography. He died in 1974.

 

THEMES IN SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER

  1. UP BRINGING OF THE CHILDREN

The popular adagesays train a child in the way he will go when he grows he will not depart from it. Mr.s. Hardcastle has Tony Lumskin from her former marriage. She passionately loves his boy so much that she lives the boy to behave the way he likes without being cautioned or advised properly. She over pampers Tony so much that he has whatever he demands even at a tender age. She believes that when Tony grows he will sort out things and throw away the ugly part of his life or behaviour. But this never happened.

Tony rejecting adult’s supervision carves out a territory for himself. He chooses to spend his life in the alehouse (hotels) instead of being in school with his makes and the mother encourages him. She says that her son does not need much education to spend fifteen pounds a year. Whenever Mr. Hardcastle her newhusband tries to intervene Mrs. Hardcastle interferes in defence of his boy, expressing that Tony is just a lad who is still under age. As tony grows up, he becomes a misfit. The landlord of the “three pigeons (where he usually drinks) calls him a mischievous son of a whore”. Hastings and Marlow on arrival describes him as sourcy one that is not well brought up, while the information they heard on Kate is that of an epitome of modesty, properly bred and virtuous woman.

 

Again after his misbehaviour by driving his mother and the party that left to hand over Neville to her aunt per-degree round their compound thereby putting fear in his mother. Mr. Hardcastle seeing the deceptive drama qualifies them as “a pair that only spoils each other. But is not the whole age in combination to drive sense and discretion out of door”. Mr Hardcastle is equally unhappy with his wife for using her position as a mother to influence Kate on the wrong character or trait that sweeps across the town. “There is my pretty Kate! The fashions of the times have almost infected her too. By living a year or two in town, she is as fond of gauze and French frippery as the best of them.” Kate however quickly gets transformed to preferred norm because of her father’s strict discipline on her.

Mr Hardcastle tries to prove that a foolish child will become an undisciplined adult by declaring Tony to be fully mature. He foolishly rejects Neville and her casket of jewels whereby throwing him into abject poverty and shame. Kate on the other hand following the strict discipline of her father uses her discretion to win Marlow’s heart and gets married to the super-rich family. Tony for want of wisdom arising from improper upbringing gets ruined.

 

  1. TRUE LOVE WILL FIND ITS WAY

Mrs Hardcastle desire to keep Miss Neville’s casket of jewels within family cannot be realized, she had hoped to get Constance Neville the daughter of her aunt who died and bequeathed this inheritance to his daughter Constance. Out of greediness, Mrs Hard castle plans a false marriage between Neville and Tony Lump skin her son so that her son will live on the income that will come from that inheritance. Constance realizes that there is love lost between her and Tony and begins to desire her true love which she finds in George Hastings.

On a visit to the Hardcastles, Miss Constance Neville discloses to Hastings the evil desire of Mrs. Hardcastle. She pledges her undivided love for Hastings. Hastings responses by recommending elopement to France where there is no parental influence on marriage. He believes that their love as it stands now is far greater than any inherited property. In other words, Hastings regards Neville as his own Jewels of inestimable value. “He says, such a tedious delay is worse than inconstancy. Let us fly my charmer. Let us date our happiness from this very moment. Perish! Perish! Fortune! Love and content will increase what we possess beyond a monarch’s revenue. Let me prevail! They agree to enlist the sympathy of Tony to help them recover the casket. Tony proves himself equal to the task. He produces the casket and hands it over to Hastings but Hastings hands it to Marlow for self-keeping. He in turn hands it over to the landlady (Mrs. Hardcastle) for safer keeping.

When Mrs. Hardcastle gets to know the plot about elopement and the miscarriage of love within Tony and Neville, she decides to send her to their aunt Pedigree. That journey suffered shame as Tony’s deception brings fear upon them. Constance being hunted by it, resolves to put her hope in Mr. Hardcastles wisdom. She urges Hasting to exercise more patience for three years. “In the moment of passion fortune may be despised, but it ever produces a lasting repentance. I’m, resolved to apply to Mr. Hardcastles compassion and justice for redress”. Indeed Mr. Hardcastle’s wisdom proffers solution to the matter.

He brings out Tony, declares him of age and desires him to consent or decline his interest on Constance Neville as his wife. Tony declines. He therefore marries Constance and Hastings ensuring they have their casket of jewels inheritance intact. Tony the false lover looses out. The case of Kate and Marlow takes a dramatic turn. The young Marlow is timid, and approaches the interview in a formal way. Kate attributes Marlow’s flaw to lack of exposure. She believes the malady can be cured easily by the skilful and virtuous wife like herself. “Ha! Ha! Was there ever such a sober, sentimental interview? I’m certain he scarce look at my face the whole time. Yet the fellow but for this unaccountable bashfulness, is pretty well too. He has good sense, but is buried in his fears, that it fatigues one more than ignorance. If I could teach him a little confidence, it would be doing somebody that I know a piece of service.

But who is that somebody? That faith a question I can scarcely answer. In contrast, Mr. Hardcastle is totally disappointed on the conduct of Marlow. He is worried about the Union he has so cherished that will seal the relationship between his family and that of Sir. Marlow. When the father and daughter compare note, the outcome is at variance. Kate requests for a fresh interview. She comes out with no visible change. “Never mind me papa, but he is still the modest man I first took him for, you’ll be convince of it as well as I. But if I shortly convince you of his modesty, that he had only the fault’s that will improve with age. I’ll hope you’ll forgive him”.

Mr. Hardcastle dismisses Kate’s claim as an improper observation, he calls Marlow a coxcomb and warns that he will be proved right at the arrival of Sir. Marlow which is soonest. Marlow apologizes that it is possible he has been mistaken the house as an inn and may have equally been treating the servants and services and the lady as a bar maid. He desires the lady to educate them further. Marlow apologizes further his foolishnesses to her and desires to check out of the house upon this discovery. Kate prevails on him and both agree to accommodate each other. Kate confesses her true love. “I never knew half of his merit now.” He shall not go. If I have power or art to detain him, I’ll still preserve the character in which I stooped to conquer, but will undeceive my papa, who perhaps, may laugh him out of resolution”. With Marlow’s apology and Kate’s true confession, their marriage becomes solemnized at the arrival of Sir, Marlow and everyone is in a joyous mood. “Yes my dear friend, this union of our families will make our personal friendships beneficiary; and though my daughter’s fortune is but small. Sir Marlow esteems true love better than fortune which he has greatly acquired for his son and his wife.

 

SELFISHNESS AND AFFECTION

This is revealed in the character of Mrs. Hardcastle. She has realized that her niece Constance Neville has inherited valuable treasure from her father. Mrs. Hardcastle develops interest in the treasure. To assure full possession of it, she plans a force marriage between her soon Tony Lumpskin with Miss Neville, knowing fully well that there is no love in existence between them.

When she realizes that true love exists between Neville and Hastings, she plots to send Neville far away so as to destroy that relationship.

When she receives back the casket which Tony has stolen from her bureau from Marlow, she tries to connive with Tony to say the casket is missing. It is because of the casket that she continues to put Tony under the age of discretion. Mrs. Hardcastle is preoccupied with the trend of fashion. She complains bitterly of loneliness. She wants to dress like the people in London while living in rural district. She collects magazines and gets herself transformed through what she observes other people do outside her environment.

The wind of affectation that sweeps across nearly sweeps Kate along. Her father Mr. Hardcastle complains bitterly to this observation. “Blessings on my pretty innocence”. Drest out as usual, my Kate. Goodness! What a quantity of superfluous silk has thou got about thee, girl! I could never teach the fools of this age, that the indigent world could be cloted out of the trimmings of the vain.

 

CONTENTMENT:

Mr. Hardcastle is an epitome of contentment. He does not wants to be affected by the so called winds of change that sweeps across. He reflects of the old times ways of Marlborough and the large houses. He trains Kate to be modest. His attitude or way of life has nothing to do with Tony. At last it is the life of contentment that stands the test of time.

CHARACTERIZATION

  1. DICK HARDCASTLE:

He is a conservative man who lives in an old fashioned house which is often mistaken to be inn. He is a man of the people who volunteers his house for peace settlement centre. He is outspoken and always stands by his word and is equally generous. The landlord of the three pigeons confirmshim as “A troublesome old blade, to be sure, but keeps as good wines and beds as any in the whole country.” He is a retired army officer who is full of reflection of the events in the military when he served. He discusses this with his wife who does not show much interest in the heroic deeds of the past. “Ay, your times were fine times indeed; you have been telling us of them for many a long year. Here we live in an in, rumbling mansion, that looks for all the world like an inn, but that never see company. He lives in solitude to the detriment of his wife who loves crowd. “Our best visitors are old Mrs. Oddfish, the curate’s wife and cripple gate, the lame dancing master; and all entertainment your old stories of prince Engine and Duke of Malborogh. I hate such old-fashion trumpery. His wife Mrs. Hardcastle tells George Hastings that her husband is an old school who prefers everything ancient. He does not fully approve of the influence the township life is bringing into the rural district thereby robbing it of serenity. “I wonder why London cannot keeps its own fools at home.”

As a disciplinarian, he does not approve of the pampering training his wife has been giving Tony. He holds the duo in ridicule. “Ay, there goes a pair that only spoil each other. But is not the whole age in a combination to derive sense and discretion out of doors? There is my pretty darling Kate! The fashion of the times have almost infected her too”. He ensures that the above anomaly he finds in Kate is corrected. Now wonder she believes herself so well that the suitor plans to die for her love.

He is a beloved husband, dutiful father who tolerates, forgives and accommodate all. He does not send Mrs. Hardcastle packing because of Tony’s habit and behaviour. He forgives Marlow for being impudent or insultive to him. Realizing that there is love lost between Tony and Neville, he pronounces the young to be of age. After his declaration that he does not like Neville, he unites her with Hastings.

He teaches his servants to treat his guest couteosuly and gives them liberty to carry on their regular routines so long as they keep to the rules. Mr. Hardcastle, as a good father does not want his daughter to make mistake in the choice of a husband. After convincing her that the son of Sir Marlwo will be good for her, he still insists for a separate interview. Even when the interview has been conducted separately, he still remains unsatisfied because of the ill behaviour he notices in Marlow. He orders for a fresh interview. When he receives convincing statement from Kate and the unqualified apology from Marlow, he consents and gives his daughter’s hand in marriage to Marlow. Mr. Hardcastle is humble. He admits to his friend Sir. Marlow that Kate does not have enough fortune but has good manner to compliment, for what she has not. He is a good spirited man who rejoices with those who rejoice. “Well, I’ll be in too good spirit to think of anything but joy. Yes, my dear friend, this union of our families will make our personal friendships heredity and though my daughter’s fortune is but small.” Unlike his wife Mr. Hardcastle is not convetous. Once he realizes that Tony does not love Neville but Hastings does, he declares Tony of age and allows the casket of jewels to depart from his step son to a total stranger, to ensure equity and fairness

 

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