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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS

What is sexual reproduction in plants? In flowering plants, the flower is the reproductive organ which is a specialised shoot consisting of a modified stem and leaves. The stem-like part is the pedicel and receptacle, while modified leaves form corolla and calyx.

 

Structure of a flower

  • A typical flower consists of the following parts:

Calyx

  1. made up of sepals.
  2. They enclose and protect the flower when it is in a bud. Some flowers have an outer whorl made of sepal-like structures called epicalyx.

Corolla

Consists of petals. The petals are brightly coloured in insect – pollinated flowers.

Androecium

  1. Is the male part of the flower. It consists of stamens.
  2. Each stamen consists of a filament whose end has an anther.
  3. Inside the anther are pollen sacs which contain pollen grains.

 

Gynoecium (pistil)

  1. Is the female part of the flower.
  2. It consists of one or more carpels.
  3. Each carpel consists of an ovary, a sty le and a stigma.
  4. The ovary contains ovules which become seeds after fertilisation.
  5. A monocarpous pistil has one carpel e.g. beans.
  6. A polycarpous pistil has many carpels.
  7. If the carpes are free, it is called apocarpous as in rose and Bryophyllum,
  8. In carpels that are fused it is called syncarpous as in Hibiscus.
  9. A complete flower has all the four floral parts.
  10. A regular flower can be divided into two halves by any vertical section passing through the centre. e.g. morning glory.
  11. Irregular flower can be divided into two halves in only one plane e.g. crotalaria.

 

See also

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES

HUMAN DISEASES (PARASITIC DISEASES)

HUMAN DISEASES – BACTERIAL DISEASES

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