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PHE

Meaning of Sewage and Refuse

Refuse refers to all solid wastes such as pieces of paper leaves, garbage, ashes and dead animals while sewage refers to liquid wastes such as urine, kitchen wastes or water from laundry.

Types of Sewage

There are basically three types of sewage, namely:

  1. Domestic Sewage
  2. Industrial Sewage
  3. Storm Sewage

Methods of Sewage Disposal

  1. Open dump
  2. Water system
  3. VIP latrine – Ventilated Improved Pit latrine
  4. Bucket latrine
  5. Pit-hole latrine

Methods of Refuse Disposal

  1. Open dump

Advantage: It is cheap to water system

  1. Composting

Advantage: Decomposed materials (without toxic materials) may serve as fertilizers

Disadvantage: Turning may be laborious and odour offensive

  1. Incineration

There are modern and local ones and are of different types.

Advantage: Local technology can be used

Disadvantages: If not properly managed surrounding air may be polluted

  1. Sanitary land fills: An excavated or land depression area is needed wherein refuse gabage are thrown and covered up with solid or dust.

Advantage:

(i) It help to reclaim waste land

(ii) It does not require high technology

(iii) It is not expensive

Disadvantage: Land to be used may be difficult to come by.

EVALUATION

  1. Differentiate sewage disposal from refuse disposal.
  2. What are the methods of sewage disposal?
  3. Why do you think open dump should not be recommended as a method of refuse disposal?
  1. What are the determinants of health?

 

See also

PERSONAL

CONTACT AND NON-CONTACT SPORTS

NON-CONTACT SPORTS

CONTACT SPORTS

BALL GAMES – SOCCER

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