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English Language
  1. Structure – Use of Possessive Apostrophe

The apostrophe ( ’ ) has three uses: contractions plurals and possessives. It is used with ‘s’ toshow possession. The formation of possessive is treated in different ways.

Formation of Possessives

  1. The possessive of the singular noun is formed by adding ‘s’ (apostrophe and ‘s)

Example:Ada’s medical book.

The child’s toy.

Father’s retirement

  1. The possessive of a plural noun is formed by adding only an apostrophe when the noun ends in ‘s’ Example: Girls’ hostel

Horses’ tail

The boys’ baseball team.

  1. The possessive of the plurals not ending with ‘s’ is formed by adding apostrophe and ‘s’

Example:         Men’s club

Children’s Day.

  1. Nouns having several words must have their possessive only to the last word.

Example:         The President of Nigeria’s speech.

The Prime Minister of India’s visit to Japan.

The door of my friend’s house.

  1. Two nouns having close association must have the possessive to the latter.

Example:         Wren and Martin’s grammar.

Johnson and Johnson’s baby face powder

  1. The possessive of nouns in apposition must be put to the second noun.

Example:         This is Sharon, the teacher’s favourite student

This is Bisi, my friend’s wife.

He lives in Okaa, Anambra’s capital

  1. Two different nouns having no relation, require separate possessive forms.

Example:         Mike’s and John’s books

Note: ‘s’ is omitted when there are hissing sounds

Example:         For goodness’ sake.

For conscience’ sake.

If a singular possessive noun ends with an ‘s’(such as James, Moses), you can either use an apostrophe before a second ‘s’ or after first ‘s’

Example:         Saint James’ Cathedral or Saint James’s Cathedral.



Show the possessive of these expressions using apostrophe where appropriate.

  • Kunle house.
  • Workers salary.
  • Moses followers.
  • At his finger tip.



Countdown in English, pg. 217


  1. Comprehension (Reading to Grasp. Main Points); Stock Exchange, page 134.

The passage explains what shares are and what the purposes of the stock exchange are.


Read and answer the questions.


Effective English, 134, 135.



Give the past and past participle form.

(i) awake                     (ii) Freeze

(iii) fight                     (iv) swear

(v) lay                          (vi) quit

(vii) lie                        (viii) tread

(ix) creep                     (x) wind


  1. Writing – Narrative – A Place of Interest I Visited

Remember, to write a good narrative, the following must be done.

  • Use the past tense forms of verbs to give an account of events which happened in the past.
  • Present the events or actions in a natural sequence.
  • Divide the tune in which the actions took place into small periods.
  • Discuss one main idea or event in a paragraph.
  • Drop the ideas or points which do not contribute to the unity and the coherence of the narrative


Sample question

Write a narrative essay on the topic. “A Place of Interest I Visited”


Heading:               A PLACE OF INTEREST I VISITED

Paragraph 1:          Description of the place you visited

Paragraph 2:          Preparations made or put in place before the journey was embarked on.

Paragraph 3:          The events that took place there

Paragraph 4:          Narrate one spectacular event or incident that caught your attention or that affected you

Paragraph 5:          (Conclusion) Narrate how it all ended


Use the outline provided to write a full length essay.



Countdown in English, pg 5 – 6; Effective English, page 87.



Section A

  1. By nature, armed robbers are ruthless: I have never seen a ________ one among them. humane    B. barbarous     C. ferocious
  2. The taxi driver slowed while overtaking the lorry when the proper thing to do was for him to have _________ accelerated    B. negotiated    C. throttled
  3. The probationary workers do not have the same right as __________ staff approved    B. confirmed    C. dismissed.
  4. The journey by road ___________ where the rail journey ended. commenced    B. originated    C. concluded.
  5. Instead of laughing about this serious matter, you should be ___________ whimpering   B. bitter    C. sober.


Section B

Practice 2, pg 73, Effective English.


See also


Review of Tenses

Vowel and the Consonants

Requirement of the Examination on Orals

Nominalization of Infinitives | Nouns, Verbs & Clauses


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