REACTION OF NON-METALS WITH OXYGEN/AIR

Chemistry

REACTION OF NON-METALS WITH OXYGEN/AIR

The following experiments show the reaction of non-metals with Oxygen and air.

  1. Burning Carbon

Procedure

(a) Using a pair of tongs hold a dry piece of charcoal on a Bunsen flame. Observe. Place the products in a beaker containing about 2cm3of water.

Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers

(b) Using a pair of tongs hold another piece of dry charcoal on a Bunsen flame. Quickly lower it into a gas jar containing Oxygen gas .

Observe.

Place about 2cm3 of water. Swirl. Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers

Observations

-Carbon chars then burns with a blue flame

-Colourless and odourless gas produced

-Solution formed turn blue litmus paper faint red.

Red litmus paper remains red.

Explanation

Carbon burns in air and faster in Oxygen with a blue non-sooty/non-smoky flame forming Carbon (IV) oxide gas.

Carbon burns in limited supply of air with a blue non-sooty/non-smoky flame forming Carbon (IV) oxide gas.

Carbon (IV) oxide gas dissolve in water to form weak acidic solution of Carbonic (IV)acid.

See also  ISOTOPES

Chemical Equation

Carbon + Oxygen -> Carbon(IV)oxide

(excess air/oxygen)

C(s) + O2(g) -> CO2(g) (in excess air)

Carbon + Oxygen -> Carbon(II)oxide

(limited air/oxygen)

2C(s) + O2(g) -> 2CO(g) (in limited air)

Carbon(IV)oxide + Water -> Carbonic(IV)acid CO2(g) + H2O (l) -> H2CO3 (aq) (very weak acid)

  1. Burning Sulphur

Procedure

(a)Using a deflagrating spoon place sulphur powder on a Bunsen flame.

Observe.

Place the products in a beaker containing about 3cm2 of water. Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers

(b)Using a deflagrating spoon place sulphur powder on a Bunsen flame. Slowly lower it into a gas jar containing Oxygen gas.Observe.

Place about 5cm3 of water. Swirl. Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers.

Observations

-Sulphur burns with a blue flame

-Gas produced that has pungent choking smell

-Solution formed turn blue litmus paper faint red.

Red litmus paper remains red.

Explanation

Sulphur burns in air and faster in Oxygen with a blue non-sooty/non-smoky flame forming Sulphur (IV) oxide gas.

See also  GRAPHITE

Sulphur (IV) oxide gas dissolve in water to form weak acidic solution of Sulphuric (IV)acid.

Chemical Equation

Sulphur+ Oxygen ->Sulphur(IV)oxide

S(s) + O2(g) -> SO2(g) (in excess air) Sulphur(IV)oxide+ Water ->Sulphuric(IV)acid SO2(g) + H2O (l) -> H2SO3 (aq) (very weak acid)

III. Burning Phosphorus

Procedure

(a)Remove a small piece of phosphorus from water and using a deflagrating spoon (with a lid cover) place it on a Bunsen flame.

Observe.

Carefully put the burning phosphorus to cover gas jar containing about 3cm3 of water.

Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers

(b)Remove another small piece of phosphorus from water and using a deflagrating spoon (with a lid cover) places it on a Bunsen flame.

Slowly lower it into a gas jar containing Oxygen gas with about 5 cm3 of water.

Observe.

Swirl. Test the solution/mixture using litmus papers.

Observations

-Phosphorus catches fire before heating on Bunsen flame

-Dense white fumes of a gas produced that has pungent choking poisonous smell -Solution formed turn blue litmus paper faint red.

See also  AIR AND COMBUSTION

Red litmus paper remains red.

Explanation

Phosphorus is stored in water. On exposure to air it instantaneously fumes then catch fire to burn in air and faster in Oxygen with a yellow flame producing dense white acidic fumes of Phosphorus(V) oxide gas.

Phosphoric(V) oxide gas dissolve in water to form weak acidic solution of Phosphoric (V)acid.

Chemical Equation

Phosphorus+ Oxygen ->Phosphorous(V)oxide

4P(s) + 5O2(g) -> 2P2(O5((s) Phosphorous(V)oxide + Water ->Phosphoric(V)acid P2O5((s)+3H2(O (l) -> 2H3(PO4( (aq) (very weak acid)

(e) Reactivity series/competition for combined Oxygen.

The reactivity series is a list of elements/metals according to their affinity for oxygen. Some metals have higher affinity for Oxygen than others.

A metal/element with higher affinity for oxygen is placed higher/on top of the one less affinity.

See also:

REACTION OF METALS WITH OXYGEN/AIR

USES OF OXYGEN

OXYGEN

THE ATMOSPHERE

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

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