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Production is the transformation/changing or conversion of raw materials into finished goods. It is the changing of natural resources or raw materials into finished goods, exchange and distributed in order to satisfy human wants.

In other words, it is the creation of goods and service. Production is not complete until the goods reach the final consumers.

Types of production

  1. Primary or extractive production
  2. Secondary or manufacturing production
  3. Tertiary production

Primary or extractive production

This is the first or early stage of production that involves bringing raw materials/natural resources from the soil, sea and forest e.g farming, hunting, lumbering, mining, etc

Secondary or manufacturing production

This is the secondary stage of production, raw materials extracted are changed/transformed into finished goods. It involves manufacturing and construction e.g. processed foods, textile industry, road/bridge construction, building cars, etc

Tertiary Production

At this stage, goods produced are distributed to the people for consumption. The people involves are wholesalers, retailers, exporters, transporters both professional and commercial services.

Effects of production on the Government and Society

The effects of production on any society will either be positive or negative.

Positive Effects

  1. It makes goods and services available for people.
  2. It helps to develop the society
  3. It improves the standard of living of the people.
  4. It helps in creating employment opportunities.
  5. It helps people to acquire special skills.

Negative Effects

  1. It brings about environmental pollution such as noise and smoke, etc
  2. It pollutes the land, e.g lack of proper disposal of waste products such as pure water sachet.


  1. What is production?
  2. What are the effects of production on the society.

See also:







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