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Agricultural Science

Post planting operations are the operations carried out after planting. It creates a good condition and proper maintenance for plants growth.

Post planting operations include the following:

  1. Thinning
  2. Supplying
  3. Irrigation/ watering
  4. Use of manure and fertilizer
  5. Mulching
  6. Weeding
  7. Harvesting
  8. Processing
  9. Storage, etc

 

Thinning is the removal of excess, weak or not well positioned seedlings from a seedbed after the viable seeds have germinated

 

Advantages of Thinning

  1. It helps to avoid over crowding
  2. Proper aeration is ensured leading to high yield

 

Supplyingis the replanting of propagative materials where they fail to germinate. Supplying should be done as soon as possible.

 

Advantages of supplying

  1. Correct plant population can be maintained
  2. The farmer can achieve uniform maturity

 

Irrigation(watering)is the artificial watering of farmland especially during dry season.

 

Advantages of irrigation

  1. It makes the soil temperature moderate for plant growth
  2. It enables a good nutrient supply to plant

 

Manuring/fertilizer applicationis the addition of organic manure such as poultry droppings, cow dung and green manure or inorganic manure (made from chemicals) to the soil to maintain soil fertility. Manure can be in form of:

  1. Animal and plant refuse (organic manure)
  2. Chemical manure (inorganic manure).

 

Types of Organic Manure

  1. Green manure: This involves growing of a crop usually a legume and just before flowering it is ploughed into the top soil to rot down
  2. Farmyard manure: This consists of faeces or excreta, urine and other waste products of domesticated animals. Animals dropping are usually mixed with straw.
  3. Compost: Plant and animal remains and ashes heaped together and allowed to decay properly by ensuring that there is plenty of air in its making.It is then spread on the farmland to incorporate nutrients into the soil.

 

Inorganic Manure (Fertilizer)

These are chemical substances which are usually prepared in the farm, they are made in form of liquid, powder, granules, pellets or crystals Fertilizers should be added to the soil only when the soil shows that some important minerals are lacking commercial fertilizers usually contain macro nutrients or elements which are removed in large amount by crops. Fertilizers therefore usually contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Examples of Nitrogen fertilizers are ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate urea, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate etc.

Examples of phosphate fertilizers are single super phosphate fertilizers are single super phosphate, triple super phosphate. Examples of potash fertilizer are potassium nitrate, sulphate of potash. Care should be taken when applying in-organic fertilizer because it can burn the plant if it comes in contact with it.

 

Ways of applying fertilizer

  1. Broadcasting
  2. Localized placement in the row or in a circle around the plant (side placement)
  3. Spraying
  4. Foliar fertilizer application

Advantage of manuring/fertilizer application

  1. It supplies the plants with essential nutrients.
  2. It maintains good soil structure

Mulchingis the covering of the surface of the soil with a layer of clean dry vegetative part of plant such as grasses or leaves.

 

Advantages of mulching

  1. It conserves soil moisture.
  2. It regulates the soil temperature.
  3. It reduces weed and prevent erosion.
  4. It adds humus to the soil.

 

Weedingis the removal of unwanted plants (weeds) from the farm. It can be done with the aid of cutlass and hoes or by spraying herbicide. It is done for the following reasons:

  1. To avoid competition for nutrients, moisture, sunlight and space between crops and weed.
  2. To prevent the buildup of pest and pathogens.

 

Harvesting is the removal of ripe or matured useful part of a crop is known as harvesting. Commonly harvested parts of a plant are tubers, leaves, fruits, seeds, roots etc.Harvesting tools like cutlass, hoe, knife, sickle etc are usually used for harvesting and in mechanized farms, harvesters are used.

 

Effects of timely versus late harvesting

Delayed harvesting can lead to a total loss of products, although some crops like maize can be left on the field to get dry before harvesting, others like tomatoes and other perishables must be harvested immediately they are due for harvest. Delayed harvesting can lead to pest attack on crops or rottening of products.

 

Post-harvesting operations

After harvesting, processing of the produce is required in order to make the produce more acceptable and to prevent spoilage. In some farm products, processing starts from the farm site, e.g. melon, groundnut, cassava etc.Melon is usually extracted from its pod and pulp on the farm, also groundnut is detached on the farm, at times, peeling of cassava starts from the farm. Extraction of cocoa beans from its pods, fermentation and drying of beans in most cases take place on the farm.

 

Other forms of processing like milling, de-husking etc which cannot be done on the farm are done in factories where machines have been installed for that purpose.

 

Storage

After crops have been processed to usage forms, storage which is the keeping of farm products for future use is done. Methods of storage are: usage of barns, cribs, silos, refrigerators, baskets, sacks etc.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is thinning?
  2. List two weeding tools.
  3. State two reasons for weeding.
  4. Why is supplying important?
  5. What is manure?
  6. State the two main types of manure.
  7. List three types of organic manure.
  8. State three ways of applying chemical fertilizers.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What are cultural practices?
  2. Distinguishing between the categories of cultural practices

 

FIELD WORK ON LAND PREPARATION

Demonstration of all practices taught on the farm site using simple farm tools.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Primary tillage is otherwise known as ____A. harrowing B. ploughing C. ridging
  2. stumping
  3. Secondary tillage is otherwise known as ____ A. harrowing B.ploughing C.mulching stumping
  1. The operation that follows harrowing is ____ A. ridging B. stumping C. clearing
  2. layout
  3. Stumping is carried out with the following except____ A.gun B. cutlass C. bulldozer
  4. axe
  5. Which of these operations comes first? A. Tillage B. Ridges C. Stumping D. Harvesting
  6. Which of these operations involve the removal of left over parts of plants in the soil?
  7. tillage B. Stumping C. Harrowing D. Ridging
  8. Which farm operation involves the breaking or turning of the soil? A. Stumping
  9. Ridging C. Tillage D. Harrowing
  10. Which of these farm operations involves the division of plots for farm work? A.Ridging B. Harrowing C. Tillage D. Farm layout
  11. ____ allows easy penetration of roots into the soil A. Harrowing B. Tillage C. Stumping D. Land clearing
  12. One of the following is not a basic consideration in planting operation A. plating space B. planting depth C. planting time D. seed pod
  13. The distance between two sown seeds/plants is ___A. Planting space B. Time
  14. Planting depth D. Planting seed
  15. Some seeds are raised in the nursery because A. The seedlings are weak B. The seedling are green C. The seedlings lovethe nursery D. So that they can get enough sunshine
  16. This is the distance of the sown seed in the soil A. Planting time B. Planting Depth
  17. Spacing D. Number of seeds
  18. The covering of soil surface with vegetative material is known as A. Weeding
  19. Thinning C. Mulching D. Supplying
  20. This is the removal of unwanted plants on the farm A. Weeding B. Thinning C. Mulching D. Supplying
  21. This is the removal of excess and weak seedling from the seed bed A. Weeding
  22. Thinning C. Supplying D. Mulching
  23. Correct planting population can be maintained by ____ A. Thinning B. Supplying
  24. Weeding D. Mulching
  25. Which of these is not an organic manure? A. Compost B. Farmyard manure C. Green manure D. Ammonium nitrate
  26. The growing of crops (legumes) and ploughing of the same into the soil as soon as it flowers is called? A.Compost B. Farmyard manuringC.Green manuringD. Yellow manuring
  27. Which of these manure is faeces or dropping of animals usually used in making.

A.Compost B. Farm yard manure C. Green manure D. In organic manure

 

THEORY

  1. What are cultural practices?
  2. Write short note on the following: A. Land clearing    tillage
  3. Write short note on the following: A. planting distanceB. planting depth,C. seed viability.

 

See also

PLANTING OPERATIONS – DISTANCE, DATE, SEED RATE, NURSERY AND NURSERY PRACTICE

CULTURAL PRACTICES

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CROP PESTS

PESTS OF CROPS | MEANING, TYPES, CLASSIFICATION, IMPORTANT

DISEASES OF CROPS | MEANING, CAUSES, EFFECTS, CONTROL

 

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