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Population refers to the total number of people living within a geographical area or country at a particular time.

FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION GROWTH

There are three major factors which determine the size and rate of growth of a country’s population. These can be summarized in the following formula;

r = Birth Rate – Death Rate + Net Migration

r = is the rate of growth of population.

Net Migration – is the different between the number of immigrants and emigrants. The major factors affecting population size and growth are therefore birth rate, death rate and migration

 

BIRTH RATE

This is referred to as the total number of birth per thousands of people in a particular year.

It is determined by the following factors:

  1. EARLY MARRIAGE: The birth rate will be higher if people marry at earlier ages.
  2. HEALTH OF THE PEOPLE: As a result of improved medical services, death rate has reduced while birth rate has been boosted.
  3. RATIO OF WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE: The greater the numbers of women who are of childbearing age the higher the birth rate.
  4. RELIGIOUS BELIEF: The religious belief of the people may also play a role. For example, Islam allows polygamy and that can leads to a high birth rate.
  5. Desire for large families
  6. Improved standard of living.

DEATH RATE

This refers to the number of deaths per thousands of the population in a year.

FACTORS AFFECTING DEATH RATE

  1. Availability of health and medical facilities
  2. Standard of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation
  3. Standard of living
  4. Incidence of epidemics, wars, famine, and people, natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes
  5. Age distribution of the population: if there are many elderly people, there may be tendency for death rate to be high.

MIGRATION

Migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement.

TYPES OF MIGRATION

  1. EMIGRATION: This is the movement of people from their country to another.
  2. IMMIGRATION: This is the movement of people into a country.

The difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants is called NET MIGRATION. Immigration increases the population while emigration decreases.

 

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION

  1. Increase in birth rate
  2. Decrease in death rate
  3. Medical improvement
  4. Early marriage
  5. The population of women
  6. Illiteracy
  7. Immigration
  8. Absence of family planning.

 

CONSEQUENCES OR IMPLICATIONS OF RAPIDLY GROWING POPULATION

  1. There will be an enlarged market: The total demand for goods and services will be higher.
  2. The Dependency ratio will increase: Workers will have more dependents (especially children) to cater for.
  3. Heavy pressure on infrastructural facilities.
  4. May lead to unemployment
  5. Urban congestion
  6. The cost of living will be high
  7. Low standard of living and fall in per capita income.
  8. Increase in government expenditure
  9. Problems of overpopulation.

AGEING OR DECLINING POPULATION

An ageing population is a declining population with an increasing percentage of old people, while the relative percentages of children and workers are decreasing.

An ageing population is also referred to as a decreasing population or stationary population or static population.

            FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR AGEING POPULATION

  1. Decrease in birth rate
  2. Increase in death rate
  3. Emigration
  4. War
  5. Diseases
  6. Natural disasters

 

ADVANTAGES OF DECLING OR DECREASING POPULATION

  1. Reduction in government expenditure
  2. Increase in government savings
  3. Increase or high standard of living
  4. It may lead to under-population
  5. Creation of job

DISADVANTAGES OF DECLING OR DECREASING POPULATION

  1. Reduction in labour force
  2. It discourage investment
  3. Rise in prices of goods and services
  4. It may lead to under-population
  5. High dependency ratio
  6. It discourages foreign aid

 

QUESTIONS

  1. What are the possible solutions to rural urban migration in West Africa?
  2. Use the information in the table and answer the following questions.

Pollution statistics of a country in 1980 and 1996

Year                                                                                         1980                1996

No of Birth in Million                                                              ——                 48

No of death in Million                                                             ——-               12

No of Immigration in Million                                                  ——-               10

No of Emigration in Million                                                    ——–              4

Total population in Million                                                     56                    98

 

Calculate;

  1. The natural increase of the population in 1996
  2. Determine the Net migration within the period
  3. The rate of growth of the population in 1996
  4. Calculate the population of the country in 1996
  5. What is the percentage increase in the population of the country from 1980 to 1996?

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