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POLYSACCHARIDES

POLYSACCHARIDES

  1. If many monosaccharides are joined together through condensation, a polysaccharide is formed
  2. Polysaccharides may consist of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharide units
  3. Examples of polysaccharides:
  4. Starch – storage material in plants
  5. Glycogen is a storage carbohydrate in animals like starch, but has longer chains
  6. Isulin – a storage carbohydrate in some plants e.g. Dahlia
  7. Cellulose – structural carbohydrate in plants
  8. Chitin – forms exoskeleton in arthropods

 

Importance and Functions of Polysaccharides

  • They are storage carbohydrates – starch in plants glycogen in animals
  • They are hydrolysed to their contituent monosaccharide units and used for respiration
  • They form structural material e.g. cellulose makes cell walls
  • Cellulose has wide commercial uses e.g.
  • Fibre in cloth industry
  • Cellulose is used to make paper
  • Carbohydrates combine with other molecules to form important structural compounds in living organisms

 

Examples are:

Pectins: Combine with calcium ions to form calcium pectate

Chitin: Combine with (NH) group

Makes the exoskeleton of arthropods, and walls of fungi.

 

Also See:

PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

NUTRITION IN PLANTS

BIOLOGY PRACTICAL

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

WATER RELATIONS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

 

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