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Physical And Health Education (Primary Classes)

PHE (Primary Classes)

OBSTACLES TO PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUTH

Physical development is the process that starts in human infancy and continues into late adolescent concentrating on gross and fine motor skills as well as puberty. As a child learns what their bodies can do, they gain self-confidence, promoting social and emotional development.   PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUTH Physical development is divided into two areas, growth and development. Growth is the physical changes of, the increase in size, height and weight. Development is how children gain control over their physical actions to do complicated and difficult activities more skilfully and easily. Physical development involves developing control over the body, particularly muscles and physical coordination.   OBSTACLES TO YOUTH PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT There are conditions which prevent children from keeping their body physically fit. These are: Lack of sleep – a child needs to sleep well in order to allow the body organs rest for a while. Lack of exercises – a… Read More »OBSTACLES TO PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUTH

PHE (Primary Classes)

PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE – LIFE SAVING SKILLS AND DEVELOPING POSITIVE HEALTH BEHAVIOR Drug abuse is an ongoing problem in many communities, creeping into the lives of all people of all ages and from all walks of life.   PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE Life – saving skills and developing positive health behavior are program designed to provide the education and support necessary by diminish drug dependency in community, school and workplace. Preventing drug abuse is a responsibility shared by each member of society.   HEALTH PROMOTION BEHAVIOURS CONDUCIVE TO PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SOCIAL WELL BEING Regular exercise Sports Constructive play Cordial relationships with others Avoidance of harmful drugs Carefully choose of what to eat and friends make   DRUG CONTROL AGENCIES Organizations concerned with physical, mental and social well – being of youths in the community – Government Organization Welfare Centres Youths and Development Federal Ministry of Education National Agency for… Read More »PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

PHE (Primary Classes)

IDENTIFICATION OF ABUSERS

IDENTIFICATION OF ABUSERS AND THEIR TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION Drug abuse affects the body and mind of the user and often many of those around him or her.   CHARACTERISTICS/EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSERS  Heroine Abnormal or excessive happiness Pain Shivering when not on the drug Cocaine Sleeplessness Lack of appetite Excessive happiness of depression when not on drug Sedative drugs Drunken behaviour without smell. Drunken behaviour with smell of drink (alcohol). Tremors or convulsion when not on drugs. PRIMARY SOURCES OF HELP FOR THOSE WITH DRUG ABUSE PROBLEM Teachers Parents Older relations School health officers Social centres   Strategies and activities Step1: Teacher revises the previous topic Step2: Teacher introduces the new topic Step 3: Teacher explains the new topic Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils   Evaluation and Assignment List 3 characteristics of persons who abuse heroine, cocaine and sedative drugs.   See also SOURCES… Read More »IDENTIFICATION OF ABUSERS

PHE (Primary Classes)

SOURCES OF DRUG SUPPLY

SOURCES OF DRUG SUPPLY – TRAFFICKING The source of drug supply are numerous and everywhere. Both registered and unregistered are supplied inside commercial buses and at motor parks. They are also supplied at restaurants, beer parlors, hotels, club house, patient medicine stores, clinics, hospitals, pharmaceutical stores, supermarkets as well as those who go about on foot selling these drugS (hawkers). Drug trafficking is one of the supply of drugs.   MEANING OF DRUG TRAFFICKING Drug trafficking is an illegal production, distribution and sales of illegal drugs. MEANING OF – LEGITIMATE DRUGS are registered and approved drugs. DRUG TRAFFICKING are sales and distribution of illegal drugs. DRUG PUSHING is selling of dangerous drugs in unregistered establishment.   REASONS FOR TRAFFICKING IN DRUGS Poverty Ignorance Greed Unemployment Bad company Corruption High demand Indiscipline   DANGERS OF DRUG TRAFFICKING Bad image for the country Imprisonment Death penalty in some cases Affects national security Negative impact on the… Read More »SOURCES OF DRUG SUPPLY

PHE (Primary Classes)

MODE OF DRUGS AND CONSEQUENCES

There are five methods of drug use which allow drugs to enter the body: Swallowing Smoking Snorting Through suppositories Injecting   MODES OF DRUGS USE  Normal Use of Drugs  These are drugs that produce desired effects. That is, when we use drugs according to doctor’s prescription. Normal use of drugs makes us get well. Examples of drugs are those in the first aid box i.e. Panadol, asprin, antacid, etc. Excessive Use of Drugs  These are drugs that cause damage and death in certain cases. We should avoid excessive use of drugs. Excessive use of drugs is also known as drug abuse. That is the use of drugs to drive desire.   CONSEQUENCES/EFFECTS OF NORMAL USE OF DRUGS Pleasurable feelings that encourage the tendency to use again and again. Development of tolerance to drugs. Reduces sense of pain.   FACTORS CAUSING DRUG ABUSE BEHAVIOR Pleasurable effects of drugs (psychological). Unpleasant effects… Read More »MODE OF DRUGS AND CONSEQUENCES

PHE (Primary Classes)

NATURE OF DRUG ABUSE AND ITS EFFECTS

Substance abuse are drug abuse and taking without the doctor’s advice or prescription. Some substance when taken changes the action of the body. Examples of substance are heroine, cocaine, Indian hemp, etc. EXAMPLES OF DRUGS MADE FROM INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS Aspirin Paracetamol Cough mixture Chloroquine Chloramphenicol Valium Antibiotics, etc. EXAMPLES OF SUBSTANCES ABUSE  Heroin Cocaine Sedative EFFECTS OF DRUGS ABUSE ON HEALTH/SOCIO – ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF DRUGS ABUSE Effects of Heroine (Street Name – Gbana) Respiratory infection Jaundice Chills and cramps Panic Nausea Lack of appetite Loss of weight   Effects of Cocaine (Street Name – Coke)  Increase blood pressure Stroke Loss of weight Convulsions Death   Effects of Sedative Drugs (MANDRAX AND VALIUM) Anxiety Disorientation Co – ordination Poor school performance Truancy Drop – out of school   Strategies and activities Step1: Teacher revises the previous topic Step2: Teacher introduces the new topic Step 3: Teacher explains the new… Read More »NATURE OF DRUG ABUSE AND ITS EFFECTS

PHE (Primary Classes)

Benefits of Safety Rules in Physical and Health Education

The knowledge of safety education prevents injury on the playground. It prevents body deformity. It helps to avoid accidents. It helps to develop the pupils’ physicålly. It helps to maintain environmental cleanliness. Knowledge about safety encourages children to play freely without any fear. Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “Benefits of safety rules in physical and health education” Step III: Teacher states the benefits of safety rules in physical and health education. Step IV: Teacher explains further with relevant examples Step V: Pupils make relevant contributions. Evaluation: One of the safety rules in physical education is to ___________________ the playground. One way of doing exercise without injury is for _____________ to support you. You must not ________________ any object anyhow   Assignment: Mention two ways safety is important in physical education. (å) ____________________________________________ (b) ____________________________________________   See also Safety rules First… Read More »Benefits of Safety Rules in Physical and Health Education

PHE (Primary Classes)

Safety Rules in Physical and Health Education

What is safety rule? Safety rules are the instruction that guides us during exercise to prevent us from been harmed. Safety rules in physical education Do enough warm-ups exercise before any physical activity Do not throw any object anyhow. Do not do any physical activity that is too difficult for your age. Pay attention to the exercise you are doing. Let your partner support you when necessary. Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “Safety rules in physical and health education” Step III: Teacher states the safety rules in physical and health education. Step IV: Teacher explains further with relevant examples Step V: Pupils make relevant contributions. Evaluation: Define safety rules Assignment: Explain three safety rules in physical and health education   See also First Aid First Aid Ways of Improving Sleep Importance of Resting Rest and Sleep

PHE (Primary Classes)

Conditions that require First Aid

Some conditions that require first aid are Bleeding Fainting Wound (Bruises) Heat exhaustion Fracture Dislocation Vomiting Explanations of some conditions that require first aid Bleeding This happens when blood is coming out of the body as å result of å cut in the skin. Blood may also come out from the nose as å result of an injury or an illness. The gum of the teeth may bleed as å result of å hard blow or å prick on it. It may also be as å result of infection. First aid for bleeding The method of stopping bleeding depends on the part of the body that is bleeding. For å bleeding leg or hand as å result of å cut, use clean water with salt to wash it. Apply iodine solution on the affected part. Fainting This is å sudden loss of consciousness. This happens when somebody does not know… Read More »Conditions that require First Aid

PHE (Primary Classes)

First Aid

First aid is an immediate help given to an injured person before proper treatment by å doctor. It is help given to å person who suddenly falls sick or has an accident before the actual treatment in the hospital. Materials found in the first aid box Materials found in the first aid box include: A pair of Scissor Bandage Cotton wool Iodine Hot water bottle Paracetamol Plaster Hydrogen peroxide   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “First aid” Step III: Teacher states the materials in a first aid box Step IV: Teacher explains further with relevant examples Step V: Pupils make relevant contributions.   Evaluation: What is first aid? Mention five materials in a first aid box Assignment: Draw a first aid box State the uses of three materials in a first aid See also Ways of Improving Sleep Importance of… Read More »First Aid

PHE (Primary Classes)

Ways of Improving Sleep

Be quiet for å while before going to bed. Å noisy place is not good for sleeping. There should be enough air in the room. Cover yourself with warm clothing Sleep where there is no bright light. Do not sleep in å room with too many people We need sleep, rest, food and enough exercises to grow. Enough time should be given to sleep. We should sleep for about eight hours daily. Go to bed early, after taking your bath. Sleep in neat and airy room. Each room should have just å few people while sleeping.   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic “importance of rest” Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic ” Ways of improving sleep. ” Step III: Teacher lists various ways of improving sleep. Step IV: Teacher explains further with relevant examples Step V: Pupils make relevant contributions. Evaluation: There should be enough ________________… Read More »Ways of Improving Sleep

PHE (Primary Classes)

Importance of Resting

Å good sleep and rest help us to: Work properly. Think easily and clearly. Act quickly and correctly. Communicate clearly. Learn fast. Be attentive. Be mentally and physically sound daily.   Factors Affecting Sleep These are things or situations that will not allow you to sleep or sleep well. You may not be able to sleep: When there is å problem on your mind. When you are sick. When you do not have enough exercise. When you take certain drugs.   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic “rest and sleep” Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “importance of rest ” Step III: Teacher lists the importance of resting. Step IV: Teacher explains further with relevant examples Step V: Pupils make relevant contributions.   Evaluation: What is rest? Mention two ways of resting What is the best way of resting? Assignment: State three importances of rest and sleep.… Read More »Importance of Resting

PHE (Primary Classes)

Rest and Sleep

Rest This is the way we relax our body and brain after the day’s work. Sleep This is the best form of rest that helps the body and brain to rest well. After the rest, they will have enough strength to work properly.   Ways to rest We can rest by playing games like: Snakes and ladders Ludo Ayo Whot and other card games Others ways: You may also sit down and relax or lie down on your bed and listen to music. We can also rest by sleeping. After you sleep well, the body works properly. Best conditions for sleeping We need beds or mats in å well-ventilated bedroom. Beds are made to sleep on for convenience, and they have mattresses made of foam. You relax better on å bed than on å mat. Å mat is å locally made material for sleeping. It spreads flat on the ground.… Read More »Rest and Sleep

PHE (Primary Classes)

Air Pollution

Air is made unsafe for breathing when it contains unpleasant odour from fåeces, dirt, poisonous gas and other rubbish. When air is polluted, it causes diseases or germs to spread to people. This can cause cough, small pox, chicken pox, tuberculosis (TB) and measles.   Polluted air can also cause suffocation. If people suffering from these diseases cough or sneeze, the germs that cause the diseases go into the air and other people could breathe them in, and be infected, with the diseases. Sources of Air Pollution Cigarette smoking causes harmful smoke and odour that pollute the air. Bad odour from refuse dumped carelessly causes air pollution Smoke from å bad motorcycle causes air pollution The smoke from generator causes air pollution   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “Air pollution” Step III: Teacher lists and explains the various source of… Read More »Air Pollution

PHE (Primary Classes)

TYPES OF SWIMMING STROKE

Swimming is an individual sport in which one requires to move the entire body inside (through) water.  This helps in exercising the muscles without putting the load on bone joints. There are basically 5 types of swimming or strokes in which you can swim. Let us discuss each type’s technique, benefits, muscles involved, etc. in detail. Front Crawl Breaststroke Butterfly Stroke Backstroke Sidestroke   Front Crawl (Credits Arena) This stroke is also known as ‘Freestyle’. It gives maximum speed with minimum effort. Freestyle swimming includes a prone horizontal (face down) position. Flutter kicks and alternate arm move movements help create the thrust needed to push the body.   Front Crawl is the fastest and most efficient stroke in swimming because: a) Drag is minimum during the arm recovery because of the pointed hands. b) There’s always one arm pulling the water. Muscles used in front crawl are: Core and abdominal… Read More »TYPES OF SWIMMING STROKE

PHE (Primary Classes)

HISTORY OF WRESTLING

The sport or activity of grappling with an opponent and trying to throw or hold them down on the ground, typically according to a code of rules. Wrestling is a general term for a combat sport between two competitors involving grappling type techniques. The main objective in most forms of wrestling is to pin down the opponent’s shoulders on to the mat.   HISTORY OF WRESTLING The modern history of wrestling begins with a rise of popularity in the 19th century, which led to the development of the modern sports of Greco-Roman wrestling on the European continent and of freestyle wrestling and collegiate wrestling in Great Britain and the United States, respectively.   These sports enjoyed enormous popularity at the turning of the 20th century. In the 1920s, show wrestling as a form of sports entertainment, now known as professional wrestling, separated from competitive sport wrestling, now known as amateur… Read More »HISTORY OF WRESTLING

PHE (Primary Classes)

IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAL ARTS

Martial arts have become an important part of many people’s lives, among both adults and children. Parents enroll their kids at schools to improve their focus and discipline. Many adults have made the practice of martial arts a way of life.   Why are the arts important and why do they play such a central role in the lives of so many? Here we will explore seven reasons why martial arts are important. We will look into their benefits and significance for those who train in them.   Self-Defense Confidence Focus and Awareness You Make Friends Reduces Stress the Right Way Health Improves Character   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES STEP1: Teacher revises the previous topic STEP 11: Teacher introduces the topic. STEP III: Teacher explains the new topic STEP IV: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions. STEPV: Teacher evaluates the pupils.   ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION List the importance of martial arts   ASSIGNMENT… Read More »IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAL ARTS

PHE (Primary Classes)

MARTIAL ARTS

MEANING OF MARTIAL ARTS Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; competition; physical, mental and spiritual development; and entertainment or the preservation of a nation’s intangible cultural heritage. The term martial arts refer to all of the various systems of training for combat that have been arranged or systematized.   TYPES OF MARTIAL ARTS Karate. This covers many styles of self-defense involving kicks, punches, and open-handed chops. It’s believed that the word “karate” was first used in Okinawa, Japan, when a martial artist created a form of martial art that had Chinese influences. “Kara” originally referred to China and “karate” to Chinese In karate (as well as many other martial arts) they’re denoted by belts in different colors, with the well-known black belt representing the highest level of expertise. . Jujitsu. Developed in China… Read More »MARTIAL ARTS

PHE (Primary Classes)

Physical and Health Challenges

Drug Education ‘Drug’ is any chemical substance other than food which is intended to affect the functions of the body. A drug can be harmful if taken in a dosage not prescribed by the doctor, or taken too frequently for unjustified reasons. Drug use refers to the taking of drugs for an intended purpose in an appropriate amount, frequency and proper manner. It is necessary for drugs to be prescribed by a physician before usage. Drug misuse Drug misuse is the practice of using drugs for pleasure rather than for medical reasons. It is the use of drugs without medically valid prescription. Even when drugs are prescribed, they may be misused if not taken in the right quantity, dosage and length of time. Drug abuse Drug abuse is the indiscriminate and excessive taking of drugs for other purposes apart from medical reasons. This has a lot of negative effects on… Read More »Physical and Health Challenges

PHE (Primary Classes)

Swimming

Swimming: Basic swimming skills, basic swimming Strokes Swimming stroke is the method of moving the arms and legs to push against the water, and propel the swimmer forward. We shall further learn the basic skills in swimming. T hese are: 1 Butterfly stroke 2 Breaststroke 3 Freestyle 4 Crawl 5 Backstroke Basic skills in swimming Butterfly 1 This is the most difficult and exhausting stroke. 2 The body is in a prone position 3 It involves the dolphin kick with a windmill-like movement of both arms in unison. Breaststroke 1 The body is in a prone position. 2 It involves frog kicking alternated with movement of the arms at the same time from a point in front of the head to shoulder level. 3 In a swimming competition, the swimmer’s head must be kept above the surface of the water at all times. Freestyle 1 This is the style in… Read More »Swimming

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